EMHEATER Frequently Asked Questions

VSDs

VSD Control Circuit Explained

Please see below images and table regarding the VSD Control Circuit and take note of the following:

  • EMHEATER VSDs are NPN Mode (PNP and NPN sensors are both supplied with positive and negative power leads and produce a signal to indicate an “on” state. PNP sensors produce a positive output to industrial controls input, while NPN sensors produce a negative signal during an “on” state).
  • EMHEATER VSD Control Circuits by default have a bridge between the PLC and +24V Terminals to power all the Digital Input Terminals (if not connected the DI terminals will not work). When using an external power supply to provide power, remove the bridge between the PLC and +24V terminals and connect the External Power Supply input to the PLC terminal (note that EMHEATER VSDs of 2.2kW and smaller do not have a PLC terminal and thus do not allow an external power source to be used).
  • EMHEATER VSDs larger than 2.2kW have 2 x GND terminals, both serving the same purpose.
  • EMHEATER VSDs of 2.2kW and smaller only has one set of Relay’s (TA-TB-TC and not both TA1-TB1-TC1 and TA2-TB2-TC2). For these smaller VSDs the single relay is programmed using the same parameters as used for Relay 2 (TA2-TB2-TC2).

VSD Control Circuit Terminals

VSD Carrier Frequency Explained

VSD switching frequency refers to the rate at which the DC bus voltage is switched on and off during the pulse width modulation (PWM) process. The on and off switching of the DC voltage is done by Insulated Gate Bipolar Transistors (IGBTs). The PWM process utilises the switching of the IGBTs to create the variable voltage and variable frequency output from the VSD. The switching frequency, sometimes called the “carrier frequency,” is defined using the unit of Hertz (Hz) and is typically in the kHz (Hz*1000) range, typically ranging from 4 to 16khz, or 4000 to 16000 switches on/off per second.

The carrier frequency of the VSD can be used to help reduce motor noise, avoid resonance of the mechanical system, and reduce leakage current to earth and interference generated by the VSD. If the carrier frequency is too low, the output current will have a high harmonic wave and could cause motor power loss and rising temperatures. If the carrier frequency is too high, the frequency inverter will be impacted by power loss, rising temperature and interference. The higher the carrier frequency, the larger the leakage current will be, however, reducing the carrier frequency may result in additional motor noise (installation of a reactor is also an effective method to remove the leakage current).

To determine what switching frequency would work best for your application, it is important to look at the advantages and disadvantages as the switching frequency is increased. Please take note of the following:

  • The longer the cable between the VSD and the motor, the higher the harmonic leakage current of the output will be, which will lead to adverse impacts on the VSD and the peripheral devices (for safety purposes, ensure that the VSD and the motor is reliably grounded). Refer to the following table for the suggested carrier frequency setting based on cable length:

VSD Carrier Frequency Setting

*Please Note: If the cable between the VSD and motor is 50m+, it is recommended to install an output choke/reactor, from 150m+ a SineWave Filter is recommended (instead of the Output Choke/Reactor).

  • The factory setting of carrier frequency varies based on the VSD power rating (kW). Note that if the set carrier frequency is higher than the factory setting, it will lead to an increase in temperature rise of the VSD’s heatsink. In this case, de-rate the VSD (select a VSD of kW rating larger than normal), otherwise the VSD may overheat (will generate an alarm).
  • Adjusting the carrier frequency could have various impacts as listed in the following table:

VSD Carrier Frequency Impact

* In the event of a shrill motor noise (audible noise) when running a motor using a VSD –  Adjusting the Random PWM Depth (d6-05) can be used to soften the noise and reduce the electromagnetic
interference to other equipment. If this parameter is set to 0, random PWM is invalid (when adjusting this parameter, lower values are more preferable).

How to use the Relay Output to Power a Panel Fan when VSD is Running

The VSD Relay Outputs can be used to power Panel Fans which switch on when the VSD is running and switches off when the VSD stops running. In order to do that a Power Source can be connected to one of the VSD Relays with the Panel Fan connected to the Normally Open Relay Output. Using the Relay Output parameters the Outputs can be controlled by the VSD Running Status by setting the following parameter:

  • When using Relay 1 (TA1-TB1-TC1), set b4-02 = 2
  • When using Relay 2 (TA2-TB2-TC2 or TA-TB-TC), set b4-03 = 2

Relay Panel Fan

Contact driving capacity:

  • 250 Vac, 3 A, COSø = 0.4
  • 30 Vdc, 1 A

 

Suggested Panel Fans as follows:

  • For VSDs up to 5.5kW -> 100mm fan
  • For VSDs up to 18kW -> 200mm fan
  • For VSDs up to 37 kw -> 250mm fan
  • For VSDs up to 75kW -> 2 x 200mm fans

How to Setup VSD Frequency Control using a Pressure Transmitter

VSD Frequency (motor speed – Hz) can be controlled using an external device such as Pressure Transmitter (PID). For parameter settings, please consider the following example:

Example/Requirements as follows:

  • PID: A 2-wire Transmitter is used requiring a 24VDC supply and with 0-10 Bar measurement range, providing a 4-20mA output (analog output).
  • Connection: Connect the PID red cable to the VSD +24V terminal; Connect the green cable to the VSD AI2 terminal; Connect the VSD COM and GND terminals to each other (Please use shielded cable to prevent electromagnetic interference by other appliances on the analog signal sent to the VSD).
  • Frequency Requirement: For this scenario the requirement is to fit a pressure transmitter at the bottom of a large dam/tank in order to measure how full/empty the dam/tank is. The requirement is then for the VSD to run a motor (pump) which fills the dam/tank at max speed when the dam/tank is empty (Pressure Transmitter will measure 0 Bar), and to gradually slow the speed of the motor as the dam/tank fills up, with the slowest speed ~ 40Hz – at which point the dam/tank is close to full. When the dam/tank is full (Pressure Transmitter will measure 5 Bar) the VSD must switch off.

VSD Parameters to be set as follows:

  • b0-02 = 1 (set Command Source selection = Terminal Control)
  • b0-03 = 3 (Set Main Frequency Source to use AI2 – ensure jumper is set to “I”)
  • b0-17 = 40 Hz (Set the Frequency Lower Limit)
  • b2-17 = 1 (Set Running Mode to STOP when the set frequency is less than the Lower Limit frequency)
  • b5-12 = 2 (Set AI2 Minimum Value) – (Setting range = 0 to 10 and transmitter range = 4 to 20mA, so 4mA in a range from 4-20mA corresponds to a value of 2 if the range is 0 to 10)
  • b5-13 = 100 (Set corresponding value (Frequency) = 100% (50Hz) if AI2 = Minimum Value above)
  • b5-14 = 6 (Set AI2 Maximum Value) – (Setting range = 0 to 10 and transmitter range = 4 to 20mA, so 12mA (at 5 Bar) in a range from 4-20mA corresponds to a value of 6 if the range is 0 to 10)
  • b5-15 = 79.9 (Set corresponding value (Frequency) = 79.9% (39.95Hz) if AI2 = Maximum Value above)

How to Setup On/Off Lights to indicate VSD Running Status

External On /Off lights can be used to indicate a VSDs running status by using the VSD Relay Outputs. In order to do that a Power Source can be connected to one of the VSD Relays with the Off Light connected to the Normally Closed Relay Output and the On Light connected to the Normally Open Relay Output. Using the Relay Output parameters the Outputs can be controlled by the VSD Running Status by setting the following parameter:

  • When using Relay 1 (TA1-TB1-TC1), set b4-02 = 2
  • When using Relay 2 (TA2-TB2-TC2 or TA-TB-TC), set b4-03 = 2

Relay On/Off Lights

Contact driving capacity:

  • 250 Vac, 3 A, COSø = 0.4
  • 30 Vdc, 1 A

How to Setup Motor Protection for a VSD

VSDs include standard overload protection for motors as follows (Overload Capacity):

  • G type:150% rated current 60s; 180% rated current 3s.
  • P type: 120% rated current 60s;150% rated current 3s.

For additional Motor Protection the following settings can be set to limit load current:

  • bd-00 (Overset alarm current value): Us this to specify the Current Limit (Amps) .
  • bd-01: (Overcurrent alarm delay time): Use this to specify the Time Delay (Seconds) to allow for.

For example: If a 4KW inverter rated current is 9A but the requirements is to protect the motor when the load current reaches 6A for more than 5s, Set: bd-00 = 6 and bd-01=5. If the load current exceeds this specified current and time limit, an Err24 protection error will be displayed and the VSD will stop.

How to Setup Leader-Follower VSD Speed Synchronisation (Cascade Control)

A Leader-Follower (Master/Slave) application is where two or more drives are electronically synchronised (Cascade Control). Typically, the first drive is configured as the “Leader” or “Master” and the subsequent drive/s that follow the master are referred to as the “Slaves” or “Followers”.

To use one VSDs Running Frequency (VSD 1 = Master VSD) as a reference point to specify another VSDs Running Frequency (VSD 2 = Follower VSD), but also to set the Follower VSD to run at 80% of the speed of the Leader VSD, please connect the VSDs and set the required parameters as follows:

Connections:

  • Connect Leader VSD AO1 with Follower VSD AI1
  • Connect Leader VSD GND with Follower VSD GND

*Please use shielded cable to prevent electromagnetic interference by other appliances on the analog signal sent to the VSD.

 

Parameter Settings:

  • VSD 1 (Leader): Set B6-05 = 0.8 (Set AO1 Gain = 80%)
  • VSD 2 (Follower): Set B0-03 = 2 (Set main Frequency source = AI1)

 

For more information regarding the use of VSDs for Leader-Follower applications, please our blog entry here.

How to Setup Forward and Reverse Running

To setup a Forward and Reverse Running function for a drive a 3-way Switch can be used (see image below for wiring) with the following parameter settings:

  • Set b0-02 = 1 (Terminal Control) – This is to ensure the Start/Stop functions are triggered via the Terminal Controls.
  • Set b3-00 = 1 (To set DI1 as the Forward Run terminal)
  • Set b3-01 = 2 (To set DI2 as the Reverse Run terminal)

Rocker-Switch

How to Setup Forward and Reverse Jogging

To setup a Forward and Reverse Jogging function for a drive a Toggle Switch can be used (see image below for wiring) with the following parameter settings:

  • Set b0-02 = 1 (Terminal Control) – This is to ensure the Start/Stop functions are triggered via the Terminal Controls (Normal Start/Stop function will also require an external on/off switch).
  • Set b3-03 = 4 (To set DI4 as the Forward JOG terminal)
  • Set b3-04 = 5 (To set DI5 as the Reverse JOG terminal)
  • Set b2-00 = User Defined Value (Default value for JOG speed = 2Hz)
  • Set b2-01 = User Defined Value (Default JOG Acceleration time is model dependant)
  • Set b2-02 = User Defined Value (Default JOG Deceleration time is model dependant)

Toggle Switch

How to Setup External Switches to control VSD Command Source Selection

VSDs can be set up to use 3 different Command Sources by setting Parameter b0-02:

  • 0 = Keypad / Operation Panel Control (LED on Keypad will be OFF)
  • 1 = Terminal Control (LED on Keypad will be ON)
  • 2 = Communication Control (LED on Keypad will BLINK)

 

Other than changing this using the b0-02 parameter, this can also be changed by connecting switches to the Digital Input Terminals (DI1 to DI5). The selected Digital input/s can then be programmed to use the following 2 functions to change the control mode:

  • Function 18 = Terminal 1 for Command Source Switchover -> If the Command Source is set to Terminal Control (b0-02 = 1), this terminal is used to perform switchover between Terminal Control and Keypad / Operation Panel control. If the Command Source is set to Communication Control (b0-02 = 2), this terminal is used to perform switchover between Communication Control and Keypad / Operation Panel control.
  • Function 19 = Terminal 2 for Command Source Switchover -> Used to perform switchover between Terminal Control and Communication Control. If the Command Source is Terminal Control, the system will switch over to Communication Control after this terminal becomes ON.

How to Setup End of Curve Parameters for Pump Systems

The End of Curve Parameter settings for pump systems are used to detect leaks/breaks in the system which can cause damage if not detected and corrected promptly. End of Curve detection is based on the measurement of the feedback pressure and the speed of the motor. If there is a leak/break in the system, pressure will decrease and the pump will accelerate to try and increase the system pressure to the desired pressure. When the drive is running at maximum speed with a feedback signal less than a specified % (C0-25) of the set point pressure (expected pressure) for a specified time period (C0-26), a fault alarm is initiated (Err31).

This is used to detect low pressure at full speed or whether the PID signal is lost. Example:

  • Set C0-25 = 97 %
  • Set C0-26 = 15 sec

When it is detected that the PID feedback is less than 97% the expected feedback for time period exceeding 15 seconds, the VSD will stop and display fault alarm Err31.

How to Setup an Intermediate Relay to Power a VSD On/Off

In some instances it might be required to switch a drive on/off by switching the power supply to the drive on/off (remote on/off power supply switch). Switching the power supply off while a drive is running a motor could however cause damage the drive capacitors etc., and would also put the drive in an error state due to the ‘power failure’ that occurred. Further to this, when switching the power supply immediately on again to start a motor could cause high current shocks if the motor did not yet stop completely (due to inertia), which could cause overcurrent failures. For these reasons one would rather use a Terminal Start/Stop method and also delay the start process. Doing this by switching the power source on and off can be accomplished by using an Intermediate Relay and setting the following Parameters:

  • Install the Intermediate Relay as per the diagram below – only one set of Normally open Contacts is required (the diagram is for a drive with Single Phase 230V supply. If the input voltage is 3-Phase 380V, choose a 380V Intermediate Relay)
  • Set b0-02 = 1 (Terminal Control)
  • Set b1-07 = 1 (Free Stop Mode)
  • Set b3-15 = 5.0 (DI1 On Delay time to delay the Start-up Process)

Intermediate Relay

Intermediate Relay

Intermediate Relay Connection
Relay Connection

How to Setup an External Stop/Start Button for a VSD

From the External Device, connect the Normally Open wire with DI1 and the Common wire with Common and then set:

  • b0-02 = 1 (terminal control)

If the External Device only has a Normally Closed connection (not Normally Open) the VSD Start/Stop function will operate in the opposite way intended. In this case, also set:

  • b3-25 = 00001(Low Level Valid)

How to Setup an External Potentiometer for Speed Control

Instead of using the Potentiometer on the drive Keypad, an external Potentiometer can also be used for speed control (which can then be installed at an alternate location). This can be done by connecting the External Potentiometer to the Drive Control Terminals as follows (for a 3-Wire Potentiometer):

  • Connect the Power Pins of the Potentiometer (usually the outside 2 connection points) to the +10V and GND terminals on the Drive.
  • Connect the Output/Signal Pin of the Potentiometer to AI1 (usually the centre connection point). Please note that the AI1 jumper on the control board needs to be set to use 0~10V (which is the default). When using AI2 or AI3 the jumper needs to be set accordingly.
  • Set b0-03 = 2 (to use AI1 as speed reference point)

*Please Note: Only use Potentiometers with a resistance range of 1 kΩ~5kΩ.

Potentiometer Wiring

Potentiometer Wiring

*Please use shielded cable to prevent electromagnetic interference by other appliances on the analog signal sent to the VSD.

How to Setup an External Potentiometer for FWD/REV and Speed Control

Instead of using the Potentiometer on the drive Keypad, an external Potentiometer can also be used for FWD/REV direction and speed control (which can then be installed at an alternate location). This can be done by connecting the External Potentiometer to the Drive Control Terminals as follows (for a 3-Wire Potentiometer):

  • Connect the Power Pins of the Potentiometer (usually the outside 2 connection points) to the +10V and GND terminals on the Drive.
  • Connect the Output/Signal Pin of the Potentiometer to AI1 (usually the centre connection point). Please note that the AI1 jumper on the control board needs to be set to use 0~10V (which is the default). When using AI2 or AI3 the jumper needs to be set accordingly (Please use shielded cable to prevent electromagnetic interference by other appliances on the analog signal sent to the VSD).

 

To set the Drive for Terminal Control (Start/Stop/Speed Control via Potentiometer):

  • b0-02 = 1 (Command Source Selection = Terminal Control)
  • b3-00 = 0 (DI1 = No Function -> This allows for VDI1 to bet set = 1)
  • b7-00 = 1 (VDI1 function set as RUNNING Command)

To set the Drive to use the Potentiometer connected to AI1 as speed reference:

  • b0-03 = 2 (Main Frequency Source = AI1)

 

Since the Potentiometer will be used for Forward and Reverse control as well as to STOP the drive, a 4-point curve (to ensure linear acceleration and deceleration) and Voltage Limit Protection setup is advised.

  • To set the 4-Point Curve and STOP criteria:
    • b5-44 = H.324 (AI Curve Selection = last digit is for AI1 Curve = 4 -> Curve 4: 4-Point)
    • b7-11 = 34 (VDO1 function set = AI1 Input Exceeding Limitation -> will initiate STOP in case of AI1 output failing b5-05 or b5-06 limits)
    • b5-05 = 4.50V (AI1 Input Voltage Lower Limit of Protection)
    • b5-06 = 5.50V (AI1 Input Voltage Upper Limit of Protection)

–>  These two parameters (b5-05 / b5-06) prevents operation and will STOP the drive in the voltage range of 4.5 to 5.5 V.

  • To set the linear acceleration/deceleration curves:
    • b5-24 = 4.50V (AI Curve 4 Inflection Point 1 Input)
    • b5-25 = 0.0% (Corresponding Setting of AI curve 4 inflection point 1 Input) -> % of Max Hz
    • b5-26 = 5.50V (AI Curve 4 Inflection Point 2 Input)
    • b5-27 = 0.0% (Corresponding Setting of AI curve 4 inflection point 2 Input) -> % of Max Hz
  • To set the FWD and REV speed (frequency) limits:
    • b5-23 = -100.0% (Corresponding Setting of AI1 Curve 4 Minimum Input) – to allow the speed to go to 50Hz in Reverse direction (% of Max Hz)
    • b5-29 = 100.0% (Corresponding Setting of AI1 Curve 4 Maximum Input) – to allow the speed to go to 50Hz in Forward direction (% of Max Hz)

 

Since we are using the 10V input, leave the following parameters as per their default values:

  • b5-22= 0.00V (AI Curve 4 Minimum Input)
  • b5-28=10.00V (AI Curve 4 Maximum Input)

 

It is also possible to use a 2-Point curve (especially if the range for the STOP criteria is negligibly small). In such a scenario, the following parameter settings would apply:

  • b5-44 = H.321 (Curve 1: 2-Point)
  • b5-07 = 0.00V (AI1 input Minimum Value)
  • b5-08 = -100.0% (Corresponding setting of AI1 minimum input value)
  • b5-09 = 10.00V (AI1 input Maximum Value)
  • b5-10 = 100.0% (Corresponding setting of AI1 maximum input value)
Potentiometer FWD and REV
*Please Note: Only use Potentiometers with a resistance range of 1 kΩ~5kΩ.

How to Setup an External Fault Device to Stop a VSD

Setup an External Fault Device to Stop a VSD (but still use Keypad Start/Stop function):

From the External Device, connect the Normally Open or Normally Closed wire with DI1 and connect the Common wire with Common and then set:

  • If it is a Normally Open connection:
    • b3-00 = 38 (default = 01)
  • If it is a Normally Closed connection:
    • b3-00 = 39 (default = 01)

 

In this scenario, keep b0-02 = 0 (Default: Keypad Control) to allow for the VSD to Start/Stop using the VSD keypad. If the External device Stops the VSD the VSD will show Err15 which indicates that the external fault device caused the VSD to stop.

How to Setup an External Device to read the VSD On/Off Status

  • Connect a relay output to monitor whether the inverter is running or not (inverter status)
  • If you use Relay 1, set b4-02 = 2

 

Contact driving capacity:

  • 250 Vac, 3 A, COSø = 0.4
  • 30 Vdc, 1 A

How to Setup an Emergency Stop for a VSD

  • Set b1-07 = 0 (default)

From the External Device, connect the Normally Closed wire with DI1 and Common with Common and then set:

  • Set b3-00 = 44 (Emergency Stop)
  • If the External Device is Normally Open, also set b3-25 = 1

*When the terminal becomes ON, the VSD stops within the shortest time. During the stop process, the current remains at the set current upper limit (to enable the VSD to stop in emergency state).

*When using a normal deceleration stoppage procedure and reducing the deceleration time to a very short time, a brake unit and/or resistor might be required to burn off the excess energy (not required for above Mergency Stop Procedure – only if stoppage time needs to be reduced even further than what is possible via the emergency stop).

  • For VSDs more than 22KW, a brake unit and brake resistor is also needed.
  • For VSDs up to 22kW a brake resistor is already built in, but an additional brake unit might be required depending on the application.

How to Setup a VSD with AI Input Overrun Limit (Pressure Transmitter Example)

To set up a EMHEATER VSD with a Pressure Transmitter to provide protection against over pressure, the pressure transmitter can be set up as a STOP trigger to stop the VSD once a certain pressure value has been reached. To do this, please see the below wiring and parameter settings.

Wiring

  • Connect GND and COM
  • Connect Pressure Transmitter to 24V and AI1
  • Set AI1 jumper to I

Pressure Transmitter Wiring

*Please use shielded cable to prevent electromagnetic interference by other appliances on the analog signal sent to the VSD.

To set AI1 Min/Max Values

The AI1 Min/Max Parameter settings ranges between 0V and 10V (in this example the output will not be Volt but rather mA, but the parameter will still be set as if it is a ‘Volt’ value). Since the output from the Pressure Transmitter is 4-20mA, the max of 20mA will correspond to 10V and the minimum of 4mA will correspond to 2V (10V/20mA = 0.5 and then 0.5 * 4mA = 2V). Therefore, the ‘Volt’ equivalent output of the Pressure Transmitter will be 2V to 10V. Thus set:

  • b5-07= 2.00 (AI1 Minimum input value)
  • b5-09 = 10.00 (AI1 Maximum input value)

 

To set the STOP function for the Input Limit

  • b7-00 = 38 (VDI1 function selection = Normally Open input of external fault)
  • b7-11 = 34 (AI1 input limit exceeded – will give Error15 if AI1 Input limit is exceeded – Press ‘Reset’ (STOP) to clear the Error)

 

To set the Input Limit (max Bar before STOP)

  • b5-05=0.00 (AI1 input voltage lower limit of protection – will also STOP when input value = 0V, which is not applicable in this scenario as the Minimum is 2V)
  • b5-06 = Value based on Pressure Limit (AI1 input voltage upper limit of protection – see calculation further down)

 

To set the Top Line of the Keypad Display to show the AI1 Output (‘Volt’ equivalent output of the Pressure Transmitter)

  • b9-11 = 9 (U0-09 = AI1 voltage)

 

Calculating b5-06 (based on Pressure Limit)

Since the Output = (b5-07) 2 to (b5-09) 10, this means the value Range = 8 (10 – 2). So, a 50% output from the Pressure Transmitter will provide a value of 6V, derived as 8 (Range) * 50% + 2 (b5-07: the minimum input value). Example:

To set the max pressure of a 25 Bar Transmitter = 15 Bar, use 15 / 25 = 0.6 and calculate b5-06 as 8 (Range) * 0.6 + 2 = 6.8 (Thus, set b5-06 = 6.8)

The below chart shows different ‘Voltage’ outputs and Bar (Pressure) readings for 2 different Pressure Transmitters (a 10 Bar and 25 Bar Transmitter).

How to Setup a VSD to Auto Start after Power Failure

Connect DI1 with Common and then set:

  • b0-02 = 1 (terminal control)
  • bb-09=20 (unlimited fault auto reset times)
  • bb-11=10 (time interval of reset times)
  • b1-07=1 (free stop mode)
  • b3-15=10 (DI1 On Delay time to delay the Start-up Process)

How to Setup a VSD for specific Motor Parameters

To setup a VSD for a specific motor:

  • Make sure that all Motor Parameters has been set (d0-00 up to d0-04)

d0-00: Motor Rated Power
d0-01: Motor Rated Voltage
d0-02: Motor Rated Current
d0-03: Motor Rated Frequency
d0-04: Motor Rated Speed

  • Perform Auto tuning if applicable/required.

How to Setup a VSD for Crane/Hoist/Lift/Winch Applications

To set up a EMHEATER VSD for a Crane/Hoist/Lift/Winch Application, please see the Crane/Hoist/Lift/Winch Setup Excel file (available for download) which provides an example to installers of the various parameters to be set and the applicable values to be used.

How to Setup a VSD for Constant Water Pressure

To set up a EMHEATER VSD with a Pressure Transmitter to provide constant water pressure, please see the Constant Water Supply Guide Excel file (available for download) which explains and guides installers through the process of determining the various parameters to be set and the applicable values to be used. For more information regarding the use of VSDs for constant water pressure, please our blog entry here.

How to Setup a T-Series VSD for Synchronous Motors

Set the following parameters when installing a T-Series VSD for Synchronous Motors:

Motor Parameters:

  • b0-00 = 2 (Motor type set to synchronous motor)
  • b0-13 = Set as motor nameplate (Maximum frequency)
  • b0-15 = Set as motor nameplate (Frequency upper limit)
  • d0-00 = Set as motor nameplate (Motor rated power)
  • d0-01 = Set as motor nameplate (Motor rated voltage)
  • d0-02 = Set as motor nameplate (Motor rated current)
  • d0-03 = Set as motor nameplate (Motor rated frequency)
  • d0-04 = Set as motor nameplate (Motor rated speed)

Motor Control Mode:

  • b0-01 = 0 (Open-loop vector control)

Motor Auto Tuning:

  • If the Motor can be disconnected from the load: Set d0-30 = 12 (dynamic no-load auto tuning), press RUN and wait for about 20s to complete the auto tuning process.
  • If the Motor can not be disconnected from the load: Set d0-30 = 11 (static auto tuning), press RUN and wait for about 10s to complete the auto tuning process.

If oscillation occurs during operation, the vector control parameter gain parameters (d1-01 ~ d1-05) can be adjusted (for parameter descriptions, please refer to the EM15 series manual). Increase Proportional Gain and decrease Integral Time to increase the gain. The acceleration and deceleration time b0-21 and b0-22 can also be adjusted (generally does not need to be adjusted).

How to Setup a Manual Speed Selector Switch

In some instances it might be required to have various predefined speed selections for a drive using a manual multi-stage switch. This can be achieved by using an external multi-stage switch connected to the drive’s Multi-Function Terminals and programming the Multi-Function References accordingly.

Consider a scenario using a 3-stage switch as per the example below, where the switch selections should reflect speeds of 50% (25Hz), 70% (35Hz) and 100% (50Hz) of the Max speed (50Hz). To achieve this the switch needs to be connected to the Digital Input Terminals of the Drive. Since the Switch selection Option 0 (K2) is always off (only K1 and K2 switches On/Off), only Option 1 (K1) and Option 2 (K2) needs to be connected. In the example below K1 is connected to DI3 and K2 connected to DI4 (thus requiring setting parameters b3-02 and b3-03 accordingly). Based on the Switch Options table below these options thus reflect Multi-Function References 1, 0 and 2 in the below table (thus requiring setting parameters C1-01, C1-00 and C1-02 as a percentage of b0-13). To ensure the Drive acknowledges this setup as the Speed Reference Point for the Drive, also set b0-03 = 6 (Multi-Function). In summary, the following parameters needs to be set:

  • b0-03 = 6 (To set Speed Reference as the Multi-Functions)
  • b3-02 = 6 (To set DI3 Terminal as Multi-Function Terminal 1)
  • b3-03 = 7 (To set DI4 Terminal as Multi-Function Terminal 2)
  • C1-01 = User Defined Value (to set Reference 1 speed value as a percentage of b0-13)
  • C1-00 = User Defined Value (to set Reference 0 speed value as a percentage of b0-13)
  • C1-02 = User Defined Value (to set Reference 2 speed value as a percentage of b0-13)
  • b0-13 = User Defined Value (max speed default = 50Hz)

3 Speed Selection Switch Setup

 

 

How to Setup a custom Motor Frequency Limit for a VSD

When setting Motor Parameters for a VSD it includes a Frequency parameter (d0-03) which is used to specify the Motor Rated Frequency. In the event that there is a requirement to run a motor faster than its rated frequency (default = 50Hz) or limit it to not run faster than a specified lower frequency (less than the 50Hz default), the following parameters should be set:

  • d0-03 = Rated Frequency of the motor (see motor nameplate)
  • b0-12 = Digital Frequency Setting (default 50Hz, but cannot be set as more than b0-13 if that were modified) – Initial frequency if the frequency source is digital setting or terminal Up/Down.
  • b0-13 = Maximum Frequency (default 50Hz) – the Maximum Frequency that should be allowed for the Motor at any given time (irrespective of what means of input is used to set the Frequency). Minimum =50hz, so only required to set for motors that needs to run at a higher frequency.
  • b0-15 = Frequency Upper Limit (default = 50Hz, but cannot be set as less than b0-17 or more than b0-13 if that were modified), to prevent the motor from running too fast.
  • b0-17 = Frequency Lower Limit (default = 0Hz, but cannot be set as more than b0-15 if that were modified), to prevent the motor from running too slow.

How to Reset a VSD (Factory Restore)

To Reset a VSD to its factory settings, set A0-09 equal to one of the following values (depending on the requirement):

  • A0-09 = 1(This will restore Default Settings except: Motor Parameters, Frequency Command Resolution / Frequency Unit (b0-11), Fault Records, Accumulative Power-On time (b9-08), Accumulative Running Time (b9-09), and Accumulative Power Consumption (b9-10)).
  • A0-09 = 4 (This will restore Device Records which includes the Fault Records, Accumulative Power-On time (b9-08), Accumulative Running Time (b9-09), and Accumulative Power Consumption (b9-10) which is not reset if A0-09 is set equal to 1).
  • A0-09 = 2 (This will restore all Device Records and all Default Settings – including the Motor Parameters which is not reset if A0-09 is set equal to 1).

 

To Backup or Restore parameter settings, set A0-11 equal to one of the following values (depending on the requirement):

  • A0-11 = 1 (This will make a backup of the Motor Parameters to the Keypad memory which can then be restored again if needed).
  • A0-11 = 2 (This will restore a previous backup of the Motor Parameters which has been made to the Keypad).

How to Change the Default Keypad Parameter Display Lines for Double Line Keypads

The default parameter display for Double Line Keypads (EM15 VSDs and Solar Drives) can be changed as follows:

Bottom Keypad Line:

To change the Display for the bottom line use the Shift Key (double right arrow) on the Keypad to scroll through all the parameters. The last parameter on display will be kept as the default display.

Top Keypad Line:

To change the Display for the top line set parameter b9-11 using the desired value (see list of options below):

  • U0-00 Running frequency
  • U0-01 Setting frequency
  • U0-02 DC Bus voltage
  • U0-03 Output voltage
  • U0-04 Output current
  • U0-05 Output power
  • U0-06 Output torque
  • U0-07 DI state
  • U0-08 DO state
  • U0-09 AI1 voltage
  • U0-10 AI2 voltage
  • U0-11 AI3 voltage
  • U0-14 Load speed display
  • U0-15 PID setting
  • U0-16 PID feedback
  • U0-17 PLC stage
  • U0-18 Input pulse frequency
  • U0-19 Feedback speed, unit:0.01Hz
  • U0-20 Remaining running time
  • U0-21 AI1 voltage before correction
  • U0-22 AI2 voltage before correction
  • U0-23 AI3 voltage before correction
  • U0-24 Linear speed
  • U0-26 Present power-on time
  • U0-27 Present running time
  • U0-28 Actual feedback speed
  • U0-29 Encoder feedback speed
  • U0-30 Main frequency X
  • U0-31 Auxiliary frequency Y
  • U0-32 Viewing any register address value
  • U0-34 Motor temperature
  • U0-35 Target torque
  • U0-37 Power factor angle
  • U0-38 ABZ position
  • U0-39 Target voltage of V/F separation
  • U0-40 Output voltage of V/F separation
  • U0-41 DI input state visual display
  • U0-42 DO output state visual display
  • U0-43 DI function state visual display 1
  • U0-44 DO function state visual display 2
  • U0-45 Fault information
  • U0-46 Phase Z signal counting
  • U0-47 Present setting frequency (%)
  • U0-48 Present running frequency (%)
  • U0-49 Frequency inverter running state
  • U0-50 Sent value of point-point communication
  • U0-51 Received value of point-point communication

How to Autotune a VSD

To autotune a VSD for a specific motor:

  • First make sure that all Motor Parameters has been set (d0-00 up to d0-04) then:
  • Set d0-30 = 3 and press ENTER
  • Press RUN to start the autotuning process.

The VSD and Motor will go through a short working process and stop by itself, after which the d0-05 up to d0-09 parameters would have been optimised.

d0-05: Stator resistance (asynchronous motor)
d0-06: Rotor resistance (asynchronous motor)
d0-07: Leakage inductive reactance(asynchronous motor)
d0-08: Mutual inductive reactance(asynchronous motor)
d0-09: No-load current(asynchronous motor)

*When using a single VSD to run more than one motor, do not perform autotuning.

Solar Drives

How to Setup an External Switch for a Solar Drive to Switch Between AC and PV Mode

In order to switch between using AC or PV mode an external switch (selector) can be connected to the Solar Drive to alternate between these 2 options. This however requires the following control board connections and switches and parameter settings:

Control Board Setup

Please connect on/off switches between the following terminals:

  • DI1 and COM (to switch the Drive On/Off)
  • DI3 and COM (to switch between AC and PV modes)

Parameter Settings

For a EM12 SP Drive or EM15 SP Drive with Single Line keypad, please set the following parameters:

  • F0-02 = 1 (Terminal Control)
  • F4-00 = 1 (DI1 = Run)
  • F4-02 = 53 (DI3 = PV Mode Stop)

How to Setup a Solar Drive to use AC Input

To use a Solar Drive as a normal Variable Speed Drive with an AC input power supply (no Solar), please set the following:

 

For a EM12 SP Drive or EM15 SP Drive with Single Line keypad, please set the following parameters:

  • FE-00 = 0 (PV Inverter Disabled)

 

For a EM15 SP Drive with Double Line keypad, please set the following parameters:

  • A1-00 = 0 (PV Inverter Disabled)

How to Setup a Solar Drive to Stop/Start based on Sunlight

Connect DI1 to COM and then set the following parameters:

 

For a EM12 SP Drive or EM15 SP Drive with Single Line keypad:

  • F0-02=1 (terminal control)

 

For a EM15 SP Drive with Double Line keypad:

  • b0-02=1 (terminal control)
  • bb-09 = 20 (unlimited fault reset times)

How to Setup a Solar Drive Reverse Function

For a EM12 SP Drive or EM15 SP Drive with Single Line keypad the Reverse function is only possible while PV ode is switched off. In order to do this the following is required:

  • Connect a Rocker Switch to DI1 (for FWD) and DI2 (for REV) – see VSD FWD/REV setup as example: https://www.emheater.co.za/faq/faq-vsd-fwdrev/.
  • Bridge DI2 and DI3
  • Set F0-02 = 1 (Terminal Control)
  • Set F4-00 = 1 (DI1 = FWD – the default is set to 1)
  • Set F4-01 = 2 (DI2 = REV : before being able to set this, first set F4-05=0)
  • Set F4-02 = 53 (DI3 which then stops PV Mode – the default is set to 53)

How to Setup a Solar Drive Free Stop

For a EM12 SP Drive or EM15 SP Drive with Single Line keypad:

  • F6-10=1 (free stop)

 

For a EM15 SP Drive with Double Line keypad:

  • b1-07=1 (free stop)

How to Setup a Solar Drive for specific Motor Parameters

To setup a Solar Drive for a specific motor:

 

For a EM12 SP Drive or EM15 SP Drive with Single Line keypad, please set the following parameters:

  • Make sure that all Motor Parameters has been set (F1-01 up to F1-05)

F1-01: Motor Rated Power
F1-02: Motor Rated Voltage
F1-03: Motor Rated Current
F1-04: Motor Rated Frequency
F1-05: Motor Rated Speed

 

For a EM15 SP Drive with Double Line keypad, please set the following parameters:

  • Make sure that all Motor Parameters has been set (d0-00 up to d0-04)

d0-00: Motor Rated Power
d0-01: Motor Rated Voltage
d0-02: Motor Rated Current
d0-03: Motor Rated Frequency
d0-04: Motor Rated Speed

 

*Perform Auto tuning if applicable/required.

*For borehole applications, to protect the pumps from running too slow during low sunlight periods, please adjust the detection frequency of low frequency protection. The default = 10 or 15Hz (depending on model), adjust it to ~ 25Hz (please confirm with the pump manufacturer what the lowest acceptable speed for the pump is to prevent damage). The frequency should not be set to less than the lowest speed at which the system is functional (e.g., lowest speed at which the motor needs to run before water exits the borehole).

For a EM12 SP Drive or EM15 SP Drive with Single Line keypad, please set the following parameters:

  • FE-19

For a EM15 SP Drive with Double Line keypad, please set the following parameters:

  • A1-22

How to Reset a Solar Drive (Factory Restore)

To Reset a Solar Drive to its factory settings:

For a EM12 SP Drive or EM15 SP Drive with Single Line keypad, please set FP-01 equal to one of the following values (depending on the requirement):

  • FP-01 = 1(This will restore Default Settings except: Motor Parameters, Frequency Command Resolution / Frequency Unit (F0-22), Fault Records, Accumulative Power-On time (F7-13), Accumulative Running Time (F7-09), and Accumulative Power Consumption (F7-14)).
  • FP-01 = 2 (This will restore Device Records which includes the Fault Records, Accumulative Power-On time (F7-13), Accumulative Running Time (F7-09), and Accumulative Power Consumption (F7-14) which is not reset if FP-01 is set equal to 1).

To Backup or Restore parameter settings, set FP-01 equal to one of the following values (depending on the requirement):

  • FP-01 = 4 (This will make a backup of the Motor Parameters to the Keypad memory which can then be restored again if needed).
  • FP-01 = 501 (This will restore a previous backup of the Motor Parameters which has been made to the Keypad).

 

For a EM15 SP Drive with Double Line keypad, please set A0-09 equal to one of the following values (depending on the requirement):

  • A0-09 = 1(This will restore Default Settings except: Motor Parameters, Frequency Command Resolution / Frequency Unit (b0-11), Fault Records, Accumulative Power-On time (b9-08), Accumulative Running Time (b9-09), and Accumulative Power Consumption (b9-10)).
  • A0-09 = 4 (This will restore Device Records which includes the Fault Records, Accumulative Power-On time (b9-08), Accumulative Running Time (b9-09), and Accumulative Power Consumption (b9-10) which is not reset if A0-09 is set equal to 1).
  • A0-09 = 2 (This will restore all Device Records and all Default Settings – including the Motor Parameters which is not reset if A0-09 is set equal to 1).

To Backup or Restore parameter settings, set A0-11 equal to one of the following values (depending on the requirement):

  • A0-11 = 1 (This will make a backup of the Motor Parameters to the Keypad memory which can then be restored again if needed).
  • A0-11 = 2 (This will restore a previous backup of the Motor Parameters which has been made to the Keypad).

How to Change the Default Keypad Parameter Display Lines for Double Line Keypads

The default parameter display for Double Line Keypads (EM15 VSDs and Solar Drives) can be changed as follows:

Bottom Keypad Line:

To change the Display for the bottom line use the Shift Key (double right arrow) on the Keypad to scroll through all the parameters. The last parameter on display will be kept as the default display.

Top Keypad Line:

To change the Display for the top line set parameter b9-11 using the desired value (see list of options below):

  • U0-00 Running frequency
  • U0-01 Setting frequency
  • U0-02 DC Bus voltage
  • U0-03 Output voltage
  • U0-04 Output current
  • U0-05 Output power
  • U0-06 Output torque
  • U0-07 DI state
  • U0-08 DO state
  • U0-09 AI1 voltage
  • U0-10 AI2 voltage
  • U0-11 AI3 voltage
  • U0-14 Load speed display
  • U0-15 PID setting
  • U0-16 PID feedback
  • U0-17 PLC stage
  • U0-18 Input pulse frequency
  • U0-19 Feedback speed, unit:0.01Hz
  • U0-20 Remaining running time
  • U0-21 AI1 voltage before correction
  • U0-22 AI2 voltage before correction
  • U0-23 AI3 voltage before correction
  • U0-24 Linear speed
  • U0-26 Present power-on time
  • U0-27 Present running time
  • U0-28 Actual feedback speed
  • U0-29 Encoder feedback speed
  • U0-30 Main frequency X
  • U0-31 Auxiliary frequency Y
  • U0-32 Viewing any register address value
  • U0-34 Motor temperature
  • U0-35 Target torque
  • U0-37 Power factor angle
  • U0-38 ABZ position
  • U0-39 Target voltage of V/F separation
  • U0-40 Output voltage of V/F separation
  • U0-41 DI input state visual display
  • U0-42 DO output state visual display
  • U0-43 DI function state visual display 1
  • U0-44 DO function state visual display 2
  • U0-45 Fault information
  • U0-46 Phase Z signal counting
  • U0-47 Present setting frequency (%)
  • U0-48 Present running frequency (%)
  • U0-49 Frequency inverter running state
  • U0-50 Sent value of point-point communication
  • U0-51 Received value of point-point communication

How to Autotune a Solar Drive

For a EM12 SP Drive or EM15 SP Drive with Single Line keypad, please set the following parameters:

  • Set F1-01 up to F1.05 according to motor nameplate
  • Set F1-37 = 1 for static auto tuning (if F0-02=1, first set it to 0, for autotuning)

Press RUN to start the autotuning process. The Solar Drive and Motor will go through a short working process and stop by itself, after which certain motor parameters would have been optimised.

 

For a EM15 SP Drive with Double Line keypad, please set the following parameters:

  • Set d0-00 up to d0-04 according to motor nameplate
  • If the motor can be disconnected from the load:
    • Set d0-30 = 2 and press ENTER
  • If the motor cannot be disconnected from the load:
    • Set d0-30 = 3 and press ENTER

*if b0-02=1, first set it to 0, for autotuning)

Press RUN to start the autotuning process. The Solar Drive and Motor will go through a short working process and stop by itself, after which the d0-05 up to d0-09 parameters would have been optimised.

  • d0-05: Stator resistance (asynchronous motor)
  • d0-06: Rotor resistance (asynchronous motor)
  • d0-07: Leakage inductive reactance(asynchronous motor)
  • d0-08: Mutual inductive reactance(asynchronous motor)
  • d0-09: No-load current(asynchronous motor)

 

 

*When using a single Solar Drive to run more than one motor, do not perform autotuning.

Soft Starters

How to Setup a Soft Starter for specific Motor Parameters

To setup a Soft Starter for a specific motor (smaller than the Soft Starter kW Rating):

  • Make sure to set FP (Motor Rated Current) = to the motor rated current.
  • Also adjust F6 (Soft Starter Maximum Current) if this is too high for the applicable motor.
  • In case of an Error 05, please set FA (Protection Level) = 2.

How to Reset a Soft Starter (Factory Restore)

For a GW Series Soft Starter:

1.Switch off all electricity supply.

2.Pres the YES key on Soft Starter and hold it in whilst switching on the electricity supply.

3.Keep the YES key pressed for 5 seconds after switching on the electricity supply and then release.

4.After doing the Factory Restore set FA to 1 or 2.

How to perform Soft Starter Error 4 Troubleshooting

Error 4 Reasons (for a GW Series Soft Starter):

1.Input Power Source Voltage is not Balanced

  • Check the 3-Phase input voltages

2.A possible Settings problem

  • Can restore factory settings

3.Thyristors’ main circuit or control circuit problems

  • There are 3 groups of red and white cables
  • One group has 2 red and white cables
  • Test the resistance between each group’s red and white cable (~ 10V but up to 20V fine)
  • Use buzzer position – one probe to R and one to U (S to V and T to W)

4.Control Board Problems

  • Check that the control board light is blinking.

5.Transformer Voltage

  • Measure the transformer voltage
  • There are 6 small cables
  • Two yellow cables voltage should be about 18v to 20V
  • Two green cable voltage should be about 9V

GW Series Soft Starter Wiring and Control Circuit Explained

Please see the below image regarding the Soft Starter Control Circuit and take note of the following:

  • EMHEATER Soft Starters are NPN Mode (PNP and NPN sensors are both supplied with positive and negative power leads and produce a signal to indicate an “on” state. PNP sensors produce a positive output to industrial controls input, while NPN sensors produce a negative signal during an “on” state).
  • Terminals 7 to 10: Control Voltage = 12VDC
  • For installation without any external controls, connect Terminals 7, 8 and 10 (otherwise the Soft Starter cannot start up and will show Err01)

GW Series Soft Starter Control Circuit

Please see the below image regarding the Soft Starter Wiring options (with or without Bypass Contactor):

GW Series Soft Starter Wiring

* Note that when using a bypass contactor together with the GW Series Soft Starter: When in running mode (bypass mode), the Soft Starter do not offer protection to the motor (Overcurrent and Phase Loss) – when using a GS Series (bypass contactor always required), the GS Series Soft Starter still offers protection when in running mode (while in bypass mode).

General

How do Collection/Delivery Work

EMHEATER stock is stored in Pretoria, but we deliver nationwide via courier service and also export to other southern African countries. It is also possible to make arrangements to collect items in Pretoria.