EMHEATER Frequently Asked Questions

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VSDs

VSD Control Circuit Explained

Please see below images and table regarding the VSD Control Circuit and take note of the following:

  • EMHEATER VSDs are NPN Mode (PNP and NPN sensors are both supplied with positive and negative power leads and produce a signal to indicate an “on” state. PNP sensors produce a positive output to industrial controls input, while NPN sensors produce a negative signal during an “on” state).
  • EMHEATER VSD Control Circuits by default have a bridge between the PLC and +24V Terminals to power all the Digital Input Terminals (if not connected the DI terminals will not work). When using an external power supply to provide power, remove the bridge between the PLC and +24V terminals and connect the External Power Supply input to the PLC terminal (note that EMHEATER VSDs of 2.2kW and smaller do not have a PLC terminal and thus do not allow an external power source to be used).
  • EMHEATER VSDs larger than 2.2kW have 2 x GND terminals, both serving the same purpose.
  • EMHEATER VSDs of 2.2kW and smaller only has one set of Relay’s (TA-TB-TC and not both TA1-TB1-TC1 and TA2-TB2-TC2). For these smaller VSDs the single relay is programmed using the same parameters as used for Relay 2 (TA2-TB2-TC2).

VSD Control Circuit Terminals

Please Note: For Smaller Drives with only one set of Relays (TA-TB-TC), use the TA2-TB2-TC2 Relay parameter settings.

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VSD Carrier Frequency Explained

VSD switching frequency refers to the rate at which the DC bus voltage is switched on and off during the pulse width modulation (PWM) process. The on and off switching of the DC voltage is done by Insulated Gate Bipolar Transistors (IGBTs). The PWM process utilises the switching of the IGBTs to create the variable voltage and variable frequency output from the VSD. The switching frequency, sometimes called the “carrier frequency,” is defined using the unit of Hertz (Hz) and is typically in the kHz (Hz*1000) range, typically ranging from 4 to 16khz, or 4000 to 16000 switches on/off per second.

The carrier frequency of the VSD can be used to help reduce motor noise, avoid resonance of the mechanical system, and reduce leakage current to earth and interference generated by the VSD. If the carrier frequency is too low, the output current will have a high harmonic wave and could cause motor power loss and rising temperatures. If the carrier frequency is too high, the frequency inverter will be impacted by power loss, rising temperature and interference. The higher the carrier frequency, the larger the leakage current will be, however, reducing the carrier frequency may result in additional motor noise (installation of a reactor is also an effective method to remove the leakage current).

To determine what switching frequency would work best for your application, it is important to look at the advantages and disadvantages as the switching frequency is increased. Please take note of the following:

  • The longer the cable between the VSD and the motor, the higher the harmonic leakage current of the output will be, which will lead to adverse impacts on the VSD and the peripheral devices (for safety purposes, ensure that the VSD and the motor is reliably grounded). Refer to the following table for the suggested carrier frequency setting based on cable length:

VSD Carrier Frequency Setting

*Please Note: If the cable between the VSD and motor is 50m+, it is recommended to install an output choke/reactor, from 150m+ a SineWave Filter is recommended (instead of the Output Choke/Reactor).

  • The factory setting of carrier frequency varies based on the VSD power rating (kW). Note that if the set carrier frequency is higher than the factory setting, it will lead to an increase in temperature rise of the VSD’s heatsink. In this case, de-rate the VSD (select a VSD of kW rating larger than normal), otherwise the VSD may overheat (will generate an alarm).
  • Adjusting the Carrier Frequency (d6-00) could have various impacts as listed in the following table:

VSD Carrier Frequency Impact

* In the event of a shrill motor noise (audible noise) when running a motor using a VSD – Adjusting the Random PWM Depth (d6-05) can be used to soften the noise and reduce the electromagnetic interference to other equipment (the higher the value the lower the noise, but will increase the temperature of the VSD). If this parameter is set to 0, random PWM is invalid (when adjusting this parameter, lower values are more preferable).

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Understanding VSD Sizing (kW Selection)

VSD Sizing/Selection: Please see below guidelines and contact us for verification if necessary:

  • For Hammer and Impact Crushers, consider using a Soft Starter instead of a VSD. VSDs are not recommended since the current tend to be very unstable during normal operation, which makes the VSDs prone to go into overload / overcurrent protection. If the feed to the Crusher is controllable (when the current is large, the feed speed should be automatically reduced), one can consider using a VSD, if it is not controllable, a Soft Starter is recommended. Some field conditions do however require the use of a VSD to reduce the impact of the starting current and some users therefor insist on using a VSD (instead of Soft Starter), and mostly use it without any problem (1/10 report overload), but this is then done using the correct design to ensure the feed is controlled.
  • Select VSD (kW) of two sizes larger than the Motor (kW) for:
    • Heavy/High Duty (Industrial) Applications (high torque requirement at start-up, e.g., Crusher, Ball Mill, Compressor with 6 Poles or more).
  • Select a VSD (kW) size larger than the Motor (kW) for:
    • General Duty Motors with 6 Poles or more (if torque is high).
    • Low Duty (low torque requirement at start-up, e.g., Fan, Centrifugal Pump) Motors with 8 Poles or more.
    • Low Efficiency Motors (e.g., submersible borehole pumps).
    • For Crane/Hoist/Lift/Winch Applications (select a VSD model so that the Motor rated Amps is less than 70% of that of the VSD Output Amp rating and use Brake Units and/or Brake Resistors for quick stopping).
    • For use in areas with altitude over 2000m or ambient temperatures above 40 degrees Celsius (preferably use forced cooling, ambient temperature must always be less than 50 degrees). Please Derating Specifications for more info as well as Cooling/Panel Fan Selection specifications.

Please Note:

  • Up to 22kW models = Plastic Housing; 30kW+ models = Metal
  • All EM15 models include RS485 terminals on the Control Boards (Modbus RTU Communication).
  • Prices for spares available on request only (includes items such as keypad, control card, power card, IGBT model, fan, fan board, capacitor, rectifier).
  • Please refer to each specific model’s User Manual for important details regarding product Installation, Setup, Safety Information, Precautions and Maintenance
  • Use the VSD to Start and Stop the Motor, do not disconnect the supply from the VSD to the Motor while it is running. Also do not disconnect the power supply to the VSD while it is running the Motor.
  • Do not use a VSD to run more than 3 motors simultaneously (For G1 and G13 Series VSDs, do not use more than one motor per VSD).
  • Note that if the cable length between the VSD and Motor is more than 50m, we would also recommend that you install an Output Choke/Reactor, for cables more than 150m we recommend installing a SineWave Filter (instead of the Output Choke/Reactor).
  • Please use Copper power cables between the VSD and Motor rather than Aluminium cables (impedance of Aluminium cables are higher and cause more harmonics).
  • For installations in enclosures, device keypads can be removed and installed into enclosure doors using additional keypad frames and extension cables.
  • Please see the VSD and Solar Drive Peripherals section of the VSD Manual for info on additional items that might be required for installation. Also see the applicable peripheral device manuals regarding information on these items.
  • PG Cards (Pulse Generator Cards) are also available on request and can be ordered together with custom VSD Control Cards. EMHEATER PG4 Universal Expansion Cards can be ordered for OC Signal Input (No Frequency Division Output) or Differential Signal Input (with Frequency Division Output).
  • Software is available for the G1 and G3 Series VSDs which enables the VSDs to be connected to a PC/Laptop via USB/RS485 or RS232/RS485 converter (not included). The software allows configuration and downloading of all the VSD parameters/settings.

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Understanding VSD Power Supply Low/High Voltage Errors

EMHEATER VSD technical specifications regarding the Input Voltage vary depending on the specific model (Input Voltage: 220V/380V/480V/575V/660V±15%) and typically suggests a 15% variance (recommendation, not limited to). The output voltage will not be affected when the DC Bus Voltage (typically 1.414 x the Input Voltage) is high, but the output voltage will be reduced when the bus voltage is too low. The Power Supply Low/High Voltage Errors thus depend on the actual DC Bus Voltage, with Overvoltage and Under Voltage Thresholds for the various models as listed below:

Overvoltage Thresholds 

  • G1 Series (Single-phase 220V Supply): Default Overvoltage Threshold = 400V
  • G13 Series (Single-phase 220V Supply): Default Overvoltage Threshold = 800V (Supply Voltage is Doubled for this model)
  • G2 Series (Three-phase 220V Supply): Default Overvoltage Threshold = 400V
  • G3 Series (Three-phase 380V Supply): Default Overvoltage Threshold = 800V
  • G4 Series (Three-phase 480V Supply): Default Overvoltage Threshold = 890V
  • G5 Series (Three-phase 525V Supply): Default Overvoltage Threshold = 900V

* Parameter bb-28 is used to set the overvoltage threshold for Err05 ~ Err08. Note that the default value is also the upper limit of the VSD’s internal overvoltage protection voltage. The parameter becomes effective only when the setting of bb-28 is lower than the default value. If the setting is higher than the default value, the default value is still applicable.

Under Voltage Thresholds

  • G1 Series (Single-phase 220V Supply): Default Under Voltage Threshold = 200V
  • G13 Series (Single-phase 220V Supply): Default Under Voltage Threshold = 350V (Supply Voltage is Doubled for this model)
  • G2 Series (Three-phase 220V Supply): Default Under Voltage Threshold = 200V
  • G3 Series (Three-phase 380V Supply): Default Under Voltage Threshold = 350V
  • G4 Series (Three-phase 480V Supply): Default Under Voltage Threshold = 450V
  • G5 Series (Three-phase 525V Supply): Default Under Voltage Threshold = 450V

* Parameter bb-29 is used to set the under-voltage threshold for Err09 (or Err08). If the power supply voltage is low on ad hoc basis but generally return to normal, this parameter can be adjusted slightly, but if the voltage is consistently low, it is not recommended.

 

* Note that Err12 (Power Input Phase Loss) could also occur due to a Power Supply Overvoltage or Under Voltage.

 

Surge Protection

To protect the VSD against power supply deviations and surges all EMHEATER VSDs include a Protection Board with Shunting Capacitors (for Electromagnetic Interference Suppression – like used in EMI Filters) and Varistors (for Voltage Suppression – also known as Voltage Dependent Resistors – VDRs).

Shunting Capacitors typically redirect current in a specific range, high frequency, away from a circuit or component and feeds the high frequency current/interference into inductors that are arranged in series, and as the current passes through each inductor, the overall strength or voltage is reduced. Optimally, the inductors will reduce the interference to nothing (also called shorting to ground).

Varistors has an electrical resistance that varies with the applied voltage and when a voltage surge exceeding a specified voltage is applied, the varistor suppresses the voltage to protect the circuit.

The Protection Board thus protects EMHEATER VSDs against electromagnetic interferences and power supply surges. Damage to the Protection Board could occur due to a very excessive power surge (more than 685Vac phase to ground) via the power supply in which case it would most likely also damage many of the other components in the rest of the power circuit.

 

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Understanding VSD Current Overload Protection and Parameter Settings

VSDs include standard Overload protection for both the Motor and Inverter (VSD). The Overload Capacity for the Inverter is noted in the technical manual as follows (Overload Capacity):

  • G type:150% rated current 60s; 180% rated current 3s.
  • P type: 120% rated current 60s;150% rated current 3s.

These ratings are however only indicating 2 points on the Inverter Current Overload Curve illustrated as follows:

Inverter Overload Protection Curve

If any of the above scenarios occur, the VSD will stop with the following Error Code:

  • Err10: Frequency Inverter Overload (this means the load current exceeds the Inverter’s current limits based on the Inverter Current Overload Curve)

Like the Inverter Current Overload protection, the VSD also protects the Motor against Current Overload. This is based on a similar (but different) curve as used for the Inverter Overload but ignores the Inverter Current Rating and instead use the Motor Rated Current as set by using parameter d0-02 (which would typically be set somewhat lower than the Inverter current rating). The Motor Current Overload Curve is illustrated as follows:

Motor Overload Protection Curve

If any of the above scenarios occur, the VSD will stop with the following Error Code:

  • Err11: Motor Overload (this means the load current exceeds the Motor’s Current limits based on the Motor Current Overload Curve)

By default, the VSD will Free Stop the motor when Err11 occurs, but this can be changed using parameter bb-32 which allows options to rather stop the motor according to the set stop mode or to continue running.

 

For additional Motor Protection the following settings can be set to limit load current (this basically allows for another overcurrent point – over and above the Motor Overload Protection Curve points):

  • bd-00 (Overset Alarm Current Value): Use this to specify the Current Limit (Amps).
  • bd-01(Overcurrent Alarm Delay Time): Use this to specify the Time Delay (Seconds) to allow for.

 For example: If a 4KW inverter rated current is 9A but the requirement is to protect the motor when the load current reaches 6A for more than 5s, Set: bd-00 = 6 and bd-01=5. If the load current exceeds this specified current and time limit, an Err24 protection error will be displayed and the VSD will stop.

 Other related Current Overload Errors that might occur includes the following:

  • Err02: Over Current During Acceleration
  • Err03: Over Current During Deceleration
  • Err04: Over Current at Constant Speed

Err02, 03 or 04 are built-in hardware circuit protection faults (please refer to the manual for more details regarding possible causes and solutions.

 

For Early Warnings on possible overloads, the VSD Relays and Digital Outputs can also be used to set up triggers/warnings using some of the following Functions:

  • Function = 22 (Current 1 Reached): This function can be used as trigger indicating whether the load current falls within a set range, using b4-35 as a set point and b4-36 (Amplitude of any current reaching 1) to indicate the allowed range (variance).
  • Function = 23 (Current 2 Reached): This function (same as Function = 22) can be used as trigger indicating whether the load current falls within a set range, using b4-37 as a set point and b4-38 (Amplitude of any current reaching 2) to indicate the allowed range (variance).

Function 22 and 23

If the output current of the VSD is within the positive and negative amplitudes of any current reaching detection value, the corresponding DO becomes ON.

 

  • Function = 27 (Output Current Exceeded Limitation): If the output (load) current of the VSD is equal to or higher than the over current threshold (b4-33 = Over current output threshold) and the duration exceeds the detection delay time (b4-34 = Over current output detection delay time), the corresponding DO becomes ON. Note that these parameters do not influence the motor overload current curve, its merely used as an early warning function.

Function 27

  • Function = 29 (Frequency Inverter Overload Pre-Warning): The VSD judges whether the load exceeds the Inverter overload pre-warning threshold before performing the protection action. If the pre-warning threshold is exceeded, the terminal becomes ON. This pre-warning is based on the inverter overload curve, but with a duration of 10 seconds less than used for the actual Overload Error (Err10).
  • Function = 31 (Motor Overload Pre-Warning) – the VSD judges Motor overload according to the motor overload threshold, and terminal becomes ON. The pre-warning coefficient can be adjusted using parameter bb-03 (default = 80%). bb-03 is used to give a warning signal to the control system via DO before motor overload protection occurs. This parameter is used to determine the percentage at which the pre-warning is performed before motor overload protection occurs. The larger the value is, the less advance the pre-warning will be. When the output current of the VSD is greater than the value of the overload inverse time-lag curve multiplied by bb-03, the DO terminal of the VSD set with motor overload pre-warning becomes ON. Note that the value of bb-02 also influence the value used for this pre-warning. Pre-Warning threshold = 220% × bb-02 × rated motor current x bb-03. If the load reaches this value, the VSD reports motor overload pre-warning.

Please Note: For Smaller Drives with only one set of Relays (TA-TB-TC), use the TA2-TB2-TC2 Relay parameter settings.

 

Adjusting the Inverter Overload Protection Curve:

  • Adjust bb-39 (Inverter Overload Protection Gain)

* It is generally not recommended to change this.

Adjusting the Motor Overload Protection Curve:

  • Adjust bb-02 (Motor Overload Protection Gain)

* It is generally not recommended to change this.

 

For the above 2 settings the VSD determines whether the Inverter or Motor is overloaded according to the inverse time-lag curve of the Inverter or Motor overload protection. The inverse time-lag curve of the Inverter or Motor overload protection is:

  • For Inverter: 115% × (bb-39) × rated inverter current (if the load remains at this value for one minute, the VSD reports inverter overload fault), or 160% × (bb-39) × rated inverter current (if the load remains at this value for 20 seconds, the VSD reports inverter overload fault).
  • For Motor: 225% × (bb-02) × rated motor current (if the load remains at this value for 30 seconds, the VSD reports motor overload fault), or 115% × (bb-02) × rated motor current (if the load remains at this value for 80 minutes, the VSD reports motor overload fault).

 

It is generally not recommended to change bb-39 or bb-02:

  • If the value of bb-02 is set too large, it may damage the motor because the motor overheats but the VSD do no report an error alarm.
  • If the value of bb-39 is set too large, it may damage the inverter because the load is more than what the internal circuitry is designed for and the VSD do not report an error alarm.

 

Disabling the Motor Overload Protection:

Although not advised, this can be done by setting bb-01 =0 (Motor overload protection Disabled)

This means the motor is exposed to potential damage due to overheating. A thermal relay is suggested to be installed between the frequency inverter and the motor.

* It is generally not recommended to change this.

 

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Understanding Terminal Control Modes (External Stop/Start and FWD/REV Functions)

Terminal Control Modes

EMHEATER drives offer various methods for STOP/START and FWD/REV functions using the drive control board terminals (Digital Inputs instead of Keypad control). Please see below image listing the 2 modes for each of the 2-Line and 3-Line Control Methods, as well as descriptions that follow:

Terminal Control Modes

 

Two-Line Control Mode 1

Forward/Reverse rotation of the motor is decided by DI1 and DI2 (most commonly used mode).

If only a Start/Stop function is required, any of the switches in Block A will be suitable for K1. If Forward and Reverse functionality is also required, the switch in Block B will be suitable. Note that for this mode, if power returns after a power failure, the inverter will respond to the actual state of the switch).

Two-Line Control Mode 2

DI1 is the RUN enabled terminal and DI2 determines the running direction.

If only a Start/Stop function is required, any of the switches in Block A (image below) will be suitable. If Forward and Reverse functionality is also required, the switch in Block B (image below) will be suitable or alternatively 2 switches can be used (any of the switches in Block A will be suitable for K1 and any of the switches in Block D will be suitable for K2). Note that for this mode, if power returns after a power failure, the inverter will respond to the actual state of the switch/es).

Three-Line Control Mode 1

DI3 is the RUN enabled terminal, and the direction is decided by DI1 and DI2.

  • If SB1 is ON: the inverter will start Forward rotation when SB2 is ON and start Reverse rotation when SB3 is ON.
  • If SB1 is OFF: The inverter stops immediately.
  • During normal start-up and running, SB1 must remain ON.

For Run function (Forward and Reverse buttons) and Stop function, the 3-button switch from Block C will be required. Note that for this mode, if power returns after a power failure, the inverter will not respond to the state before power failure, so the Start button needs to be pressed again to enable the Run function).

Three-Line Control Mode 2

DI3 is the RUN enabled terminal, and the RUN command is given by DI1 whilst the direction is decided by DI2.

  • If SB1 is ON: the inverter will start running when SB2 is ON in Forward rotation when K is OFF and in Reverse rotation when K is ON.
  • The inverter stops immediately after SB1 becomes OFF.
  • During normal start-up and running, SB1 must remain ON, SB2 is effective immediately after ON

If only a Start/Stop function is required, any of the 2-button switches in Block C will be suitable. If Forward and Reverse functionality is also required, an additional switch from Block D will be required. Note that for this mode, if power returns after a power failure, the inverter will not respond to the state before power failure, so the Start button needs to be pressed again to enable the Run function).

Switches

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Understanding Single-Phase to 3-Phase Converters (VSDs)

EMHEATER offers two single-phase to 3-phase Converter products (for AC Motors only). These converters are however complete Variable Speed Drive (VSD) units which merely also converts the Single-Phase (220V) power supply to a 3-Phase output. Note that these Converter VSDs can be used to run AC motors only, so if there are any other 3-Phase components the Converter VSD cannot be used to supply power for that (cannot be used as a 3-Phase Power Supply for resistance loads such as an Oven/Welding Machine etc.).

Converter VSDs

Note that many 3-Phase motors can often be wired to use either a 3-Phase 220V OR 3-Phase 380V power supply – depending on this there are 2 different models to select from (select a kW option based on the kW and Amp rating of your motor):

  • G1: Single-Phase (220V ±15%) Input and 3-Phase (~220V) Output
  • G13: Single-Phase (220V ±15%) Input and 3-Phase (~380V) Output – ideally use a size option larger than that of the motor kW for this model (Motor Rated Amps < 70% of Converter VSD Output Amps)

Please refer to your motor nameplate to verify whether the motor is 3-Phase 220V or 3-Phase 380V (or possibly allow for both options). Please see image below as reference:

Star Delta Connection

Please Note (Converter VSDs):

  • Important to note that the requirements for the supply side Amps is high in order to generate the 3-Phase output from a Single-Phase 220V supply – for the G13 model (~380V output), expect the supply side Amp requirements to be ~4 times the rated motor Amps and for the G1 model (~220V output), expect the supply side Amp requirements to be ~2 times the rated motor output Amps. Please ensure cabling, switches and power supply is sufficient for the supply side Amp requirements.
  • For high duty applications a Converter VSD rating (kW) option larger than the motor rating (kW) is recommended and for heavy duty / industrial applications a Converter VSD rating (kW) option of two sizes larger than the motor rating (kW) is recommended (please contact us for verification if necessary). A larger size option Converter VSD is also recommended for Fan and Pump motors with 8 Poles or more and for other motors with 6 Poles or more (if torque is high) as well as for low efficiency motors (e.g., submersible borehole pumps).
  • Note that if the cable between the Converter VSD and motor is more than 50m, we would also recommend that you install an Output Choke/Reactor, for cables more than 150m we recommend installing a SineWave Filter (instead of the Output Choke/Reactor).
  • Please use Copper power cables between the Converter VSD and Motor rather than Aluminium cables (impedance of Aluminium cables are higher and cause more harmonics).
  • Use the Converter VSD to Start and Stop the motor, do not disconnect the supply from the Converter VSD to the motor while it is running. Also do not disconnect the power supply to the Converter VSD while it is running the motor.

 

Please see video illustration HERE.

 

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Understanding Drive Wiring and MCCB/Contactor Selection

Wiring and MCCB/Contactor Selection

Please see the below tables for specifications for MCCB/Contactor and Wiring selections for the various Variable Speed Drive and Solar Drive models and sizes (please use Copper Cable):

G1 Wiring and Breakers

G13 Wiring and Breakers

G3 Wiring and Breakers

 

For Solar Drives:

  • For SP1 Series use the same specs as for the G1 Series in the table above (for the AC cabling)
  • For SP3 Series use the same specs as for the G3 Series in the table above (for the AC cabling)
  • For DC Cables use the specs of the Main Circuit Supply Cable from that of a larger sized Drive

 

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Understanding Drive External STOP Methods

External STOP Methods

EMHEATER Drives offers various methods to use as External STOP functions using the drive Digital Input Terminals. Some of these methods are to be used as a Normal STOP function (Decelerate or Free Stop) or as an Emergency STOP function (quickest possible deceleration time), whilst others are intended as Fault STOP functions (resulting in an Error status).

This can be done by setting the relevant Digital Input Terminal function (b3-00 ~ b3-04) equal to one of the values as listed in the below table:

External STOP Methods

* Please note that the Normally Open/Close logic used for these terminals can be switched using parameter b3-25 (DI Valid Selection).

 

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Understanding Drive Cooling/Panel Fan Selection

Axial Flow Fan Selection

For Soft Starter Cooling/Panel Fan Selection, please see the relevant FAQ page HERE.

 

The following 3 tables lists all the available axial flow fans and their respective specifications:

220V AC Fans

380V 3-Phase AC Fans

DC Fans

To determine the required cooling (CFM) for a specific panel, use the VSD kW * 5.364 to calculate the required CFM value and select the appropriate fan/s accordingly. Please see table below showing the appropriate fan/s selection for each specific kW option VSD.

 

Fan Selection

Please note that Single-Phase 380V Fans are also available (not included in design options in above tables). Please note that these fans can also be used with a Single-Phase 230V supply, with adjusted CFM and RPM values indicated in brackets below:

380V Single-Phase AC Fans

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Understanding Derating Specifications

Temperature and altitude derating specifications outline the maximum operating temperature and altitude at which a VSD/Soft Starter can function safely and efficiently.

Generally, as the ambient temperature increases, the unit’s output power must be reduced to prevent damage or failure, this reduction is known as “derating”. It is important to consult the manufacturer’s documentation for the specific unit in question to understand its temperature derating factor. Similarly, as altitude increases, the air density decreases which can affect the cooling of the unit, thus it may need to be de-rated, or its output power reduced, to prevent damage or failure.

EMHEATER Environmental requirements state that units should be de-rated based on Ambient Temperature and Altitude. These are specified as follows:

  • Altitude: Lower than 1000m
  • Ambient Temperature: -10°C~ +40°C (de-rated if the ambient temperature is between 40°C and 50°C)

For conditions where the Altitude or Ambient Temperature exceeds the abovementioned specifications, the following applies:

  • Altitude: For every 1000m above the original 1000m limit, please select a kW option larger than normal.
  • Ambient Temperature: For ambient temperature between 40°C and 50°C, please select a kW option larger than normal – This is to accommodate for the rise in resistance under higher temperatures and to protect sensitive electronics from being over-stressed. Using units at Ambient Temperatures above 50 degrees is not advised. For all circumstances with Ambient Temperatures above 40 degrees, please consider making use of forced cooling to reduce the temperature.

As a general (conservative) rule of thumb AC Motors/VSDs/Soft Starters are all rated for up to 1000m (~3300 feet) in altitude and 40 degrees Celsius (and is not rated at all for operation above 50°) and both generally de-rate at the same rate. Both then de-rate at about 1% for every 100m (~328 feet) above 1000m and then de-rate at about 1% per degree above 40 degrees Celsius.

 

Temperature Control: 

Even with de-rating, additional control might be required to maintain temperatures at acceptable levels. This is largely because VSDs/Soft Starters generate significant heat while operating. When the units dissipate heat and the heat is contained within a cabinet, the temperature within can easily exceed upper temperature limits and cause premature drive failure. EMHEATER do provide very specific requirements for installation clearances and mounting methods in order to ensure the units are adequately cooled. When the units are wall- or floor-mounted as stand-alone units these methods may be all that are needed, but installation within cabinets often demands additional temperature control. This temperature control is typically provided by Passive Cooling (fan cooling / forced air ventilation) or Active Cooling (refrigerated / air conditioned and water cooling).

In cases where the ambient temperature is not excessive, Passive Cooling (fan cooling) might be required for unit installation in enclosures. Fans for Passive Cooling should be sized to provide air flow which take into account the unit’s heat dissipation and assume a rated maximum ambient temperature. Fans are also often equipped with suitable filters to protect the cabinet contents from dust and debris (filter kits can typically be specified for indoor or outdoor use). For larger units, particularly when the cabinets are installed outdoors in warm climates, Active Cooling (air condition and water cooling) might be required.

Cooling requirements can be affected by installation location as well. For example, it is not recommended for cabinets to be installed in direct sunlight (if this cannot be avoided, then some type of shelter or sun screen is recommended). Installing a unit in a location shaded from the sun during the hotter parts of the day can significantly reduce cooling demands.

Suggested Cooling as follows:

Active Cooling (air condition and water cooling) Rule of Thumb = 75 BTU/h is required for every 1 HP

Passive Cooling (fan cooling) Rule of Thumb = 4 CFM is required for every 1 HP to maintain 10°C above ambient in the enclosure

 

Humidity/Condensation Control:

EMHEATER units are rated for up to 95% (RH) relative humidity (non-condensing) for VSDs and 90% for Soft Starters, so in all but extreme cases humidity is not a problem. However, cabinets subjected to wide temperature swings can be exposed to condensation. For example, a cabinet mounted outdoors in a temperate climate may see winter temperatures of 0°C or lower. This may not be an issue while the drive is operating, but if it is off for an extended period of time, condensation can develop on internal components. This problem is typically addressed by installing one or more space heaters within the enclosure (heaters are typically thermostatically controlled and interlocked for operation based on unit status).

 

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How to Wire Peripherals (EMC/EMI Filters, Chokes, SineWave Filters)

The following illustrates the various peripherals that could be required when using a Variable Speed Drive or Solar Drive:

Peripherals

The following illustrates the various components of each of the peripherals:

Peripheral Components

The following describes how to wire each respective peripheral component to the Variable Speed Drive or Solar Drive:

Input (Line) / Output (Load) EMC/EMI Filter (NOISE FILTER)

  • The Line side typically includes three Phase Terminals and an Earth Terminal. The Load side typically only includes three Phase Terminals.
  • For Input (Line) Filter – connect the Power Supply to the side where there are three Phase Terminals and an Earth Terminal and the other three Phase Terminals to the VSD.
  • For Output (Load) Filter – connect the VSD to the side where there are three Phase Terminals and an Earth Terminal and the other three Phase Terminals to the Motor.
  • Incorrect wiring could cause damage to the VSD or capacitors inside the filter.
  • Install close to the VSD.
  • Do not connect the Earth Terminal to the VSD.
  • Can be used when using multiple motors with a single VSD.
  • Do not install a Step Up/Down Transformer before or after an Input or Output Filter.

Input (Line) / Output (Load) Reactor/Choke (HARMONIC FILTER)

  • The Line side typically includes three Phase Terminals located at the Top of the Windings. The Load side typically includes three Phase Terminals located at the Bottom of the Windings. In some cases, instead of terminals connected directly to the windings, Terminal Blocks are available for connections, the first terminal being the Line Terminal for a phase and the subsequent Terminal being the Load Terminal for the same phase.
  • For Input (Line) Reactor/Choke – connect the Power Supply to the three Phase Terminals located at the Top of the Windings and the Bottom three Phase Terminals to the VSD.
  • For Output (Load) Reactor/Choke – connect the VSD to the three Phase Terminals located at the Top of the Windings and the Bottom three Phase Terminals to the Motor.
  • Incorrect wiring will affect the reactance value and impact performance.
  • For larger kW G3 Series VSDs, Output Reactors are recommended, for G5 Series, Input Reactors are recommended.
  • Silicone Steel Core temperatures should never exceed 100 °C, otherwise install a cooling fan for forced air cooling to prolong the service life of the Reactor/Choke.
  • Install close to the VSD.
  • Do not connect the Earth Plate to the VSD.
  • Can be used when using multiple motors with a single VSD.
  • Do not install a Step Up/Down Transformer before or after an Input or Output Choke.

* Please Note: The inductance and the design frequencies of Input Reactors and Output Reactors are different. If an Output Reactor is used as input, the harmonic suppression effect will be reduced. If an Input Reactor is used as output, the reactor temperature will be higher, and the voltage drop will increase. The VSD will not be affected, but it is not ideal to swop any of these reactors.

SineWave Filter

  • The Line side typically includes three Phase Terminals connected to the Windings ONLY. The Load side typically includes three Phase Terminals connected to the Windings AND the Capacitors. In some cases, instead of terminals connected directly to the windings, Terminal Blocks are available for connections, the first terminal usually being the Line Terminal for a phase and the subsequent Terminal being the Load Terminal for the same phase. Connect the VSD to the three Line Side Terminals and the Motor to the three Load Side Terminals.
  • Incorrect wiring may damage the VSD (and could cause VSD alarm – Err02 / Err04 / Err40)
  • Silicone Steel Core temperatures should never exceed 100 °C, otherwise install a cooling fan for forced air cooling to prolong the service life of the SineWave Filter.
  • Install close to the VSD.
  • Do not connect the Earth Plate to the VSD.
  • Can be used when using multiple motors with a single VSD.
  • Can install a Step Up/Down Transformer after a SineWave Filter (install Transformer close to SineWave Filter) – this is however not recommended as it may affect the performance of the SineWave Filter.

 

* Installation Spacing – Please see the VSD spacing requirements for the specific VSD to be used with the peripheral and apply the same spacing logic for the peripheral.

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How to Wire External Brake Units and Brake Resistors to a VSD

The following illustrates how to wire an External Brake Unit (with Resistor/s) or Resistor/s (Without External Break Unit) to a VSD:

Brake Unit and Brake Resistor Wiring

 

The following describes how to wire each of the 2 possible scenarios:

External Brake Unit with Resistor (for 30kW VSDs and larger)

  • Connect the External Brake Unit P+ Terminal to the VSD P+ Terminal and External Brake Unit P- Terminal to the VSD P- Terminal.
  • Refer to the Brake Unit Manual for more details here.

Brake Resistor without Break Unit (for VSDs up to 22kW)

  • Connect the Resistor Terminals to the VSD P+ and PB Terminals.

 

* Please Note:

  • When using a braking resistor or brake unit, please set parameter A2-05 = 0 (if it is not set = 0 it may cause deceleration time extension problems).
  • When using a braking resistor or brake unit for a Crane/Hoist/Lift/Winch Application, please see the Crane/Hoist/Lift/Winch Setup Excel file (available for download) which provides an example of all the various parameters to be set and the applicable values to be used.
  • Please install the Brake Unit and/or Resistor/s external from the VSD due to heat generated by the resistors.

 

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How to use the Relay Output to Power a Panel Fan when VSD is Running

The VSD Relay Outputs can be used to control Panel Fans which switch on when the VSD is running and switches off when the VSD stops running. In order to do that a Power Source can be connected to one of the VSD Relays with the Panel Fan connected to the Normally Open Relay Output. Using the Relay Output parameters, the Outputs can be controlled by the VSD Running Status by setting the following parameter:

  • When using Relay 1 (TA1-TB1-TC1), set b4-02 = 2
  • When using Relay 2 (TA2-TB2-TC2 or TA-TB-TC), set b4-03 = 2

Please Note: For Smaller Drives with only one set of Relays (TA-TB-TC), use the TA2-TB2-TC2 Relay parameter settings.

Relay Panel Fan

Contact driving capacity:

  • 250 Vac, 3 A, COSø = 0.4
  • 30 Vdc, 1 A

 

Suggested Cooling as follows:

*Please also see Drive Cooling/Panel Fan Selection information here.

  • Active Cooling (air condition and water cooling) Rule of Thumb = 75 BTU/h is required for every 1 HP
  • Passive Cooling (fan cooling) Rule of Thumb = 4 CFM is required for every 1 HP to maintain 10°C above ambient in the enclosure

*Please also see Drive Derating information here.

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How to Troubleshoot Error 40

According to the technical manual Error 40 (By wave current limiting fault) is caused by either the Drive model being of too small power class or due to the load being too heavy or locked- rotor occurring on the motor.

Other common Causes however include the following:

  1. Poor Pump/Motor insulation or poor Cable insulation.
  2. Too long cable distance between Drive and Pump/Motor causing too much leakage current.
  3. VF Shock (Abnormal Load / Transient Overcurrent Protection) – Caused by instantaneous currents of more than 2 times the rated Drive current.

Some tests that can be done to try and pinpoint the issue include the following:

  1. Test whether the Motor Direction is correct – can be done without changing wiring, or via parameter setting:
    1. For Solar Drive (Single Line Keypad Model) set F0-09 = 1 (Reverse) and check whether it resolves the issue. If not, set F0-09 back to = 0 (Forward). Note that if F0-02=1 (Terminal Control), F0-09 cannot be changed, so first set F0-02=0 (Keypad Control) before setting it to Reverse Direction.
    2. For VSD or Solar Drive (Double Line Keypad Series) set b0-18 = 1 (Reverse) and check whether it resolves the issue. If not, set b0-18 back to = 0 (Forward). Note that if b0-02=1 (Terminal Control), b0-18 cannot be changed, so first set b0-02=0 (Keypad Control) before setting it to Reverse Direction.
  2. Test for VF Shock by setting the following parameters (make note of original values in order to change them back to the original values after the test):
    1. For Solar Drive (Single Line Keypad Model) set F3-10 = 64 (VF Over Excitation Gain) and F3-11 = 40 (VF Oscillation Suppression Gain) – make note of original values. If the Motor/Pump then runs without an error it can be confirmed as VF Shock causing the error. If this has no effect, set the values for these parameters back again and check the insulation of the pump/motor and cable.

According to experience in the use of submersible pumps, the possibility of leakage current is relatively large (high leakage current will not show a higher current reading on the VSD). Using an Output reactor could assist in resolving this and provide protection to the VSD and motor – submersible pumps generally have very poor power factors, so ideally size the VSD larger than the pump motor rating.

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How to Troubleshoot E.PAn Error

An E.PAn Error on a drive Keypad typically indicates a communication failure between the Keypad and Control Board.

  • If this error is being displayed permanently, check the cable connection between the Keypad and Control Board.
  • If this error is being displayed momentarily, this could be due to the DC Bus Voltage dropping below 100V – this could typically happen when using a Solar Drive where the Dormancy Voltage (Sleep) is set very low, creating a scenario where the drive is still busy decelerating before reaching the Dormancy Voltage (which would trigger Error Ar.01) while the DC Bus Voltage already dropped below 100V, which would then cause the communication error being displayed on the keypad. This could also be caused by a poor connection within the PV Array supplying the drive with power (sudden voltage drop occurs when a load is added).

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How to Setup VSDs for Crusher / Feeder Speed Control Applications

 

Crusher / Feeder Speed Control VSDs Setup

Crushers (especially Hammer / Impact / Jaw Crushers) are mainly used for primary crushing of large pieces of materials. These are typically harsh working environments with heavy loads. These applications therefore have a high risk of overload (causing the system to stop running) due to uneven feeding or hard/large materials entering the crusher and getting stuck in the crushing chamber or between the rollers.

These overload conditions typically result in a very high spike in current drawn by the motor (various risks associated with that), which, from a VSD perspective, typically cause the VSD to trip (Err10 Overload or Err02/03/04 Overcurrent fault protection). VSDs typically has limitations to its overload capacity (typically rated current 1.5 times for 60s, 1.8 times for 3s, or instantaneous protection at 2 times rated current), please see FAQ entry HERE for a more detailed explanation on this.

* Note that for Hammer / Impact / Jaw Crushers (due to above implication), it is generally advised to rather use a Soft Starter (instead of VSD), but for scenarios where a VSD is required (due to additional functionality and features when compared to Soft Starters), the following setup and VSD selection is suggested:

For both the main Crusher Motor and the Feeder (Feeding Conveyor Belt) Motor, select VSDs (kW) of two sizes larger than the Motors (kW). For the Vibrating Screen Motor, select a VSD (kW) size larger than the Motor (kW). In addition to this (from setup perspective), the feeding speed of the conveyor belt should be controlled by the current of the main crusher motor (to reduce the feeder speed when the current of the crusher motor is large), and the feeder motor should only start once the crusher motor is running.

For the Feeder VSD start/stop control, the Crusher VSD relay (TA2/TC2 or TA/TC) is used to ensure that when the Crusher VSD reaches the FDT1 detection frequency, the relay output triggers the start-up of the Feeder VSD (and thus only starts the feeding process once the crusher is running at the desired speed). When the frequency is lower than the FDT1 detection frequency, the Crusher VSD relay (TA2/TC2 or TA/TC) is disconnected and the Feeder VSD will stop the Feeder Motor.

For speed control the AO1/GND analog output of the Crusher VSD (0-10V signal) is used as input to the AI1/GND analog input of the Feeder VSD. This is thus used as a closed-loop PID control setup to avoid overcurrent protection shutdown of the Crusher VSD (by controlling the feeding speed based on the Amps drawn by the Crusher Motor).

In addition to this, the AI1/GND analog input of the Feeder VSD is set up with a limit to ensure that when the Crusher VSD Amps reaches a too high value, the Feeder VSD is stopped immediately (use b5-06 to set the limit, which will initiate a fault when reached – fault needs to be reset manually).

Wiring Diagram:

Crusher Feeder Wiring

Parameter Settings:

For both VSDs, ensure to set the Motor Parameters (d0-00~d0-04) according to the Motor Nameplate details and then perform the Auto Tuning (d0-30).

Crusher VSD Parameters:
  • Set b4-03 = 17 (Relay 2 Function set as FDT1 Output which will be used as trigger to open/close the relay)
  • Set b4-22 = 45 (FDT1 set at 45Hz which will be used as the trigger frequency to open/close the above relay)
  • Set b4-23 = 0 (Frequency Detection Hysteresis set to use a 0% offset)
  • Set b6-01 = 2 (AO2 Output Function set to use the Motor Output Current – corresponds to 0~Double the Motor Rated Current)

*In addition to the above one would typically adjust the Acceleration (set b0-21 = 60s) and Deceleration (set b0-22 = 200s) times as needed and also use an External Start/Stop Switch (see FAQ entry HERE) and an Emergency Stop (see FAQ entry HERE).

Feeder VSD Parameters:
  • Set b0-02 = 1 (Command Source Selection set as Terminal Control to allow Start/Stop via the Crusher VSD relay)
  • Set b0-03 = 8 (Main Frequency Source X Selection set as PID to allow speed control based on Crusher Motor Amps)
  • Set b1-07 = 1 (Stop Mode set as Free Stop)
  • Set b5-05 = 0 (AI1 Input Voltage Lower Limit of Protection set to be irrelevant)
  • Set b5-06 = 8 (AI1 Input Voltage Upper Limit of Protection set as additional protection against overcurrent – 8V corresponds to 1.6 times the Crusher Motor Current reached, which will initiate Err27 Fault Protection – used by b7-00 and b7-00 that follows)
  • Set b7-00 = 40 (VDI1 Function Selection set as User Defined Fault1 to be used which will be triggered based on b7-11 that follows)
  • Set b7-11 = 34 (VDO1 Function Selection set for AI1 Input Exceeded Limitation which will trigger fault b5-06 based on the value limit set using b7-00)
  • Set C0-00 = 0 (PID Setting Source set as C0-01)
  • Set C0-01 = 40 (PID Digital Setting set as the desired speed of the Feeder Motor – adjust according to specific scenario to ensure Crusher Motor Amps is as desired when operating normally – typically use Target Crusher Motor Current / 2 * Crusher Motor Rated Current (this is because AO2 is rated up to double the motor rated current))
  • Set C0-03 = 0 (PID Feedback Source set to use AI1)
  • Set C0-07 = 0.1 (Integral Time TI1 set to have a response time of 0.1s)
  • Set C3-09 = 0 (Set Sleep Selection as Active/Available)

*In addition to the above one would typically adjust the Acceleration (set b0-21 = 10s) and Deceleration (set b0-22 = 6s) times as needed and also use an Emergency Stop (see FAQ entry HERE).

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How to Setup VSD Low Current Protection (Typically for Dry Run Protection)

To setup a Low Current Alarm (typically used for Dry Run Protection for Water Pumps), the following parameter settings can be used:

  • Set b7-00 (VDI1) = 38 (Normally Open input of external fault – this is to specify the Virtual Digital Input to give an Error when triggered by the Virtual Digital Output) – the default for b3-04 = 38 and first needs to be set to a different value to allow setting b7-00 = 38 – only one terminal can use a value at a time)
  • Set b7-11 (VDO1) = 26 (Zero current state – this is to set the Virtual Digital Output to trigger a zero current state output)
  • Set b4-31 (Zero current detection level) = set below current value (% of motor current as set using d0-02) – this is to define the current value to be used as the Zero Current (Low Current) trigger
  • Set b4-32 (Zero current detection delay time) = delay protection time – this is to define for how long the current value can be below the Zero Current (Low Current) before initiating a trigger event

When the Low Current Alarm is triggered the VSD will show Err15: External Equipment Fault (External fault signal via virtual I/O). In some cases it might be required to set the VSD to automatically restart again after a delay period. This requires that the VSD is set up to clear the Error to allow the Auto Restart. This can be done as described in the following FAQ entry Here.

* Please Note: For VSDs up to 55kW using software versions before V0.12 (released 15 Sept 2022), the B4-31 current value of 10% = d0-02, for version V0.12 and later the B4-31 current value of 100% = d0-02 for all VSD kW ranges.

For scenarios where this setup might be applicable, please see:

– To set up a EMHEATER VSD with a Pressure Transmitter to provide Constant Water Pressure using the VSD Parameters to set a Fixed Target Pressure, please see the relevant FAQ entry here.

– To set up a EMHEATER VSD with a Pressure Transmitter to provide Constant Water Pressure using an external analog signal (such as a PLC) to modify the target pressure (Variable Target Pressure), please see the relevant FAQ entry Here.

– To set up a EMHEATER VSD with a Pressure Transmitter to provide Constant Water Pressure using an external Multi-Stage Switch to modify the target pressure (Target Pressure Selector), please see the relevant FAQ entry Here.

– To set up a EMHEATER VSD with a Pressure Transmitter for Frequency Control using a PID (Manage Water Outflow), please see the relevant FAQ entry Here.

– To set up a EMHEATER VSD with a Pressure Transmitter for Frequency Control using a PID (Manage Water Inflow), please see the relevant FAQ entry Here.

– To set up a EMHEATER VSD with AI Input Overrun Limit (using a Pressure Transmitter as STOP), please see the relevant FAQ entry Here.

For additional Protection Features, please also see:

– To set up a EMHEATER VSD End of Curve Parameters (PID Signal Loss Protection), please see the relevant FAQ entry Here.

– To set up a EMHEATER VSD Restart (Delayed) after Low Current Protection Condition Occurred (Dry Run Protection Reset), please see the relevant FAQ entry Here.

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How to Setup VSD Frequency Control using a PID (Manage Water Outflow)

VSD Frequency (motor speed – Hz) can be controlled using an external device (PID) such as a Pressure/Level Transmitter. For parameter settings, please consider the following example:

Example/Requirements as follows:

  • PID: A 2-wire Level Transmitter is used requiring a 24VDC supply and with 0-5m measurement range, providing a 4-20mA output (analog output).
  • Connection: Connect the PID red cable to the VSD +24V terminal; Connect the green cable to the VSD AI2 terminal; Connect the VSD COM and GND terminals to each other. Please use shielded cable to prevent electromagnetic interference by other appliances on the analog signal sent to the VSD. For EMC Mitigation: 1) Allow for at least 20cm distance between communication cables and motor wires. 2) Do not use the same cable tray. 3) Insert wires in metal pipes if possible.
  • Frequency Requirement: For this scenario the requirement is to put a level transmitter in a large dam/tank in order to measure how full/empty the dam/tank is. The requirement is then for the VSD to run a motor (pump) which pumps water from the dam/tank at full speed when the dam/tank is full (Level Transmitter will measure 5m), and to gradually reduce the speed of the motor as the dam/tank level drops in order to maintain a dam/tank level of 1m (below this level the VSD must switch off).

VSD Parameters to be set as follows:

  • b0-02 = 1 (set Command Source selection = Terminal Control)
  • b0-03 = 8 (Set Main Frequency Source to use PID)
  • C0-00 = 0 (PID Setting Source set use C0-01)
  • C0-01 = 20% (PID Digital Setting as % of target Level – 1m target level of max 5m level = 20%)
  • C0-03 = 1 (PID Feedback Source = AI2)
  • C0-04 = 1 (PID Action Direction – set as Reverse Action – determines the positive and negative effects of PID)
  • b5-12 = 2 (Set AI2 Minimum Value) – (transmitter range = 4 to 20mA, so 4mA in a range from 4-20mA corresponds to a value of 2 if the range is 0 to 10)
  • b5-14 = 10 (Set AI2 Maximum Value) – (transmitter range = 4 to 20mA, so 20mA (at 5m) in a range from 4-20mA corresponds to a value of 10 if the range is 0 to 10)

 

Sleep/WakeUp settings:

  • b2-24 = 30 (Dormant Frequency)
  • b2-25 = 30 (Dormant Delay Time)
  • b2-26 = 31 (WakeUp Frequency)
  • b2-27 = 10 (WakeUp Delay Time)

 

For other similar scenarios please also see:

– To set up a EMHEATER VSD with a Pressure Transmitter to provide Constant Water Pressure using the VSD Parameters to set a Fixed Target Pressure, please see the relevant FAQ entry here.

– To set up a EMHEATER VSD with a Pressure Transmitter to provide Constant Water Pressure using an external analog signal (such as a PLC) to modify the target pressure (Variable Target Pressure), please see the relevant FAQ entry Here.

– To set up a EMHEATER VSD with a Pressure Transmitter to provide Constant Water Pressure using an external Multi-Stage Switch to modify the target pressure (Target Pressure Selector), please see the relevant FAQ entry Here.

– To set up a EMHEATER VSD with a Pressure Transmitter for Frequency Control using a PID (Manage Water Inflow), please see the relevant FAQ entry Here.

– To set up a EMHEATER VSD with AI Input Overrun Limit (using a Pressure Transmitter as STOP), please see the relevant FAQ entry Here.

For additional Protection Features, please also see:

– To set up a EMHEATER VSD End of Curve Parameters (PID Signal Loss Protection), please see the relevant FAQ entry Here.

– To set up a EMHEATER VSD Low Current Protection (Dry Run Protection), please see the relevant FAQ entry Here.

– To set up a EMHEATER VSD Restart (Delayed) after Low Current Protection Condition Occurred (Dry Run Protection Reset), please see the relevant FAQ entry Here.

 

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How to Setup VSD Frequency Control using a PID (Manage Water Inflow)

VSD Frequency (motor speed – Hz) can be controlled using an external device (PID) such as a Pressure/Level Transmitter. For parameter settings, please consider the following example:

Example/Requirements as follows:

  • PID: A 2-wire Pressure Transmitter is used requiring a 24VDC supply and with 0-10 Bar measurement range, providing a 4-20mA output (analog output).
  • Connection: Connect the PID red cable to the VSD +24V terminal; Connect the green cable to the VSD AI2 terminal; Connect the VSD COM and GND terminals to each other. Please use shielded cable to prevent electromagnetic interference by other appliances on the analog signal sent to the VSD. For EMC Mitigation: 1) Allow for at least 20cm distance between communication cables and motor wires. 2) Do not use the same cable tray. 3) Insert wires in metal pipes if possible.
  • Frequency Requirement: For this scenario the requirement is to fit a pressure transmitter at the bottom of a large dam/tank in order to measure how full/empty the dam/tank is. The requirement is then for the VSD to run a motor (pump) which fills the dam/tank at max speed when the dam/tank is empty (Pressure Transmitter will measure 0 Bar), and to gradually reduce the speed of the motor as the dam/tank fills up, with the slowest speed ~ 40Hz – at which point the dam/tank is close to full. When the dam/tank is full (Pressure Transmitter will measure 5 Bar) the VSD must switch off.

VSD Parameters to be set as follows:

  • b0-02 = 1 (set Command Source selection = Terminal Control)
  • b0-03 = 3 (Set Main Frequency Source to use AI2 – ensure jumper is set to “I”)
  • b0-17 = 40 Hz (Set the Frequency Lower Limit)
  • b2-17 = 1 (Set Running Mode to STOP when the set frequency is less than the Lower Limit frequency)
  • b5-12 = 2 (Set AI2 Minimum Value) – (Setting range = 0 to 10 and transmitter range = 4 to 20mA, so 4mA in a range from 4-20mA corresponds to a value of 2 if the range is 0 to 10)
  • b5-13 = 100 (Set corresponding value (Frequency) = 100% (50Hz) if AI2 = Minimum Value above)
  • b5-14 = 6 (Set AI2 Maximum Value) – (Setting range = 0 to 10 and transmitter range = 4 to 20mA, so 12mA (at 5 Bar) in a range from 4-20mA corresponds to a value of 6 if the range is 0 to 10)
  • b5-15 = 79.9 (Set corresponding value (Frequency) = 79.9% (39.95Hz) if AI2 = Maximum Value above)

 

For other similar scenarios please also see:

– To set up a EMHEATER VSD with a Pressure Transmitter to provide Constant Water Pressure using the VSD Parameters to set a Fixed Target Pressure, please see the relevant FAQ entry here.

– To set up a EMHEATER VSD with a Pressure Transmitter to provide Constant Water Pressure using an external analog signal (such as a PLC) to modify the target pressure (Variable Target Pressure), please see the relevant FAQ entry Here.

– To set up a EMHEATER VSD with a Pressure Transmitter to provide Constant Water Pressure using an external Multi-Stage Switch to modify the target pressure (Target Pressure Selector), please see the relevant FAQ entry Here.

– To set up a EMHEATER VSD with a Pressure Transmitter for Frequency Control using a PID (Manage Water Outflow), please see the relevant FAQ entry Here.

– To set up a EMHEATER VSD with AI Input Overrun Limit (using a Pressure Transmitter as STOP), please see the relevant FAQ entry Here.

For additional Protection Features, please also see:

– To set up a EMHEATER VSD End of Curve Parameters (PID Signal Loss Protection), please see the relevant FAQ entry Here.

– To set up a EMHEATER VSD Low Current Protection (Dry Run Protection), please see the relevant FAQ entry Here.

– To set up a EMHEATER VSD Restart (Delayed) after Low Current Protection Condition Occurred (Dry Run Protection Reset), please see the relevant FAQ entry Here.

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How to Setup VSD End of Curve Parameters for Pump Systems

The End of Curve Parameter settings for pump systems are used to detect leaks/breaks in the system which can cause damage if not detected and corrected promptly. End of Curve detection is based on the measurement of the feedback pressure and the speed of the motor. If there is a leak/break in the system, pressure will decrease and the pump will accelerate to try and increase the system pressure to the desired pressure. When the drive is running at maximum speed with a feedback signal less than a specified % (C0-25) of the set point pressure (expected pressure) for a specified time period (C0-26), a fault alarm is initiated (Err31).

This is used to detect low pressure at full speed or whether the PID signal is lost. Example:

  • Set C0-25 = 97 %
  • Set C0-26 = 15 sec

When it is detected that the PID feedback is less than 97% the expected feedback for time period exceeding 15 seconds, the VSD will stop and display fault alarm Err31.

For scenarios where this setup might be applicable, please see:

– To set up a EMHEATER VSD with a Pressure Transmitter to provide Constant Water Pressure using the VSD Parameters to set a Fixed Target Pressure, please see the relevant FAQ entry here.

– To set up a EMHEATER VSD with a Pressure Transmitter to provide Constant Water Pressure using an external analog signal (such as a PLC) to modify the target pressure (Variable Target Pressure), please see the relevant FAQ entry Here.

– To set up a EMHEATER VSD with a Pressure Transmitter to provide Constant Water Pressure using an external Multi-Stage Switch to modify the target pressure (Target Pressure Selector), please see the relevant FAQ entry Here.

– To set up a EMHEATER VSD with a Pressure Transmitter for Frequency Control using a PID (Manage Water Outflow), please see the relevant FAQ entry Here.

– To set up a EMHEATER VSD with a Pressure Transmitter for Frequency Control using a PID (Manage Water Inflow), please see the relevant FAQ entry Here.

– To set up a EMHEATER VSD with AI Input Overrun Limit (using a Pressure Transmitter as STOP), please see the relevant FAQ entry Here.

For additional Protection Features, please also see:

– To set up a EMHEATER VSD Low Current Protection (Dry Run Protection), please see the relevant FAQ entry Here.

– To set up a EMHEATER VSD Restart (Delayed) after Low Current Protection Condition Occurred (Dry Run Protection Reset), please see the relevant FAQ entry Here.

 

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How to Setup Series Connection when using a Single Analog Input for Multiple VSDs

In some cases it might be necessary to manage multiple VSDs using a single Analog input – for example: Using a single pressure transmitter to manage the speed of multiple VSDs. For such a scenario the Pressure Transmitter (Analog Input) can be connected in a series connection as illustrated in the image below (Pressure Transmitter is connected to VSD 1 and VSD 2 is connected to VSD 1).

VSD Wiring required as follows:

  • VSD 1: Connect the Transmitter to the required AI Input and +24V and also bridge COM and GND.
  • VSD 2: Connect the the required AI Input and GND to VSD 1’s AO1 and GND.

VSD Parameters to be set as follows:

  • VSD 1: If using AO1 set b6-01 (or b6-02 if using AO2) equal to 7 (if AI1 was used for Transmitter Input, otherwise equal to 8 for AI2 or equal to 9 for AI3).
  • VSD 2: Update the necessary AI (AI1, AI2 or AI3) parameters to ensure it corresponds to the 0 -10V output of VSD 1’s AO Output. Also ensure VSD 2’s AI input’s jumper is set for Voltage Input.

Pressure Transmitter connection to Multiple VSDs

Please Note:

  • Please use shielded cable to prevent electromagnetic interference by other appliances on the Analog signal sent to the VSD. For EMC Mitigation: 1) Allow for at least 20cm distance between communication cables and motor wires. 2) Do not use the same cable tray. 3) Insert wires in metal pipes if possible.
  • When using a metal transmitter connected to a metal piping system, please use a plastic connecter/fitting to isolate the transmitter from the metal piping system, or ideally use a plastic (PEX / PVC) pipe segment (20 – 30 cm long) to isolate the transmitter from the metal piping system. Also ensure the metal piping system is properly grounded (other electrical equipment and/or appliances could cause current/voltage on the metal piping system which will have an adverse effect on the transmitter output values).
  • When using pressure transmitters, a buffer tube can also be added to prevent shock pressure transmission.

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How to Setup Overcurrent Limiting when using Drives for Water Pumping Applications

Requirement:

In certain scenarios, when pumping water (due to pressure changes in the system), it could cause motors to draw high currents when running at full speed until the pressure stabilises as expected. This typically happens in areas where pivot irrigation systems are located on steep up and downhill slopes, and also happens in scenarios where irrigation systems are being adjusted (changing or opening additional irrigation sections causing sudden drops in pressure etc.). Running at these high currents is obviously not desired and could damage the motors. Normal drive overcurrent protection features will assist in stopping the motor when the current is too high (for too long), but this will stop the motor and the drive will show an error. Ideally in these scenarios one would rather prefer the drive to slow the motor down (reduce the running frequency to a speed where the current returns to an acceptable value) while pressure builds up and then speeds up again.

Solution/s:

  1. VSDs offer a current limiting feature which can be adjusted. Adjust parameter A2-00 (Current Limit Level – default = 150%) to a lower value (~120%) which will limit the frequency of the VSD when the current rises too high (see U0-19 monitoring parameter to view impact/adjustment). Please note that this feature is not applicable for Solar Drives. Please see Current Limiting Explained section later on.
  2. For scenarios where a PID is used for constant water pressure setups, one could also consider setting the PID Initial Value parameter C0-16 (FA-21 for Solar Drives) and the PID Initial Value Holding Time parameter C0-17 (FA-22 for Solar Drives) to limit the frequency for a period of time before speeding up (to give the pipe time to fill up and pressure to rise before speeding up). This typically only helps for scenarios where the high current issue occurs during initial start-up (not for scenarios where the current rises during full speed operation such as when changing or opening additional irrigation sections causing sudden drops in pressure or pivot systems operating on steep up and downhill slopes).
  3. For scenarios where the issue only occurs during initial start-up, one could also consider using the Simple PLC feature to control the start-up procedure. Please see the FAQ page regarding this for VSDs HERE and for Solar Drives HERE.

Current Limiting Explained:

Relevant Parameters:

  • A2-00 (Current Limit Level – default = 150%): This value is a percentage of the set motor rated current (d0-02). This current value (when exceeded) is used as the starting point to start the overcurrent stall suppression action.
  • A2-01 (Current Limit Selection – default = 1): To activate/deactivate the feature (0 = Invalid; 1 =Valid).
  • A2-02 (Current Limit Gain – default = 20): This parameter is used to adjust the over current suppression capacity of the drive. The larger the value is, the greater the over current suppression capacity will be. In condition of no over current occurrence, should set A2-02 to a small value. For small inertia loads the value should be small, otherwise, the system dynamic response will be slow. For large inertia loads the value should be large, otherwise, the suppression result will be poor and over current fault may occur. If the current limit gain is set to 0, the over current stall function is disabled.
  • A2-03 (Compensation Factor of speed multiplying current limit – default = 50%): Reduce the high-speed overcurrent stall action current, which is invalid when the compensation coefficient is 50%, and the action current in the weak magnetic zone corresponds to 100% of the recommended setting value of A2-00.

Explanation:

When the output current exceeds the value set in A2-00 (during acceleration, constant running, or deceleration), the current limit feature is enabled, and the output frequency will start to drop until the output current drops to below the current limit level – after that the output frequency will start to rise again attempting to reach the target frequency again.

VSD Current Limiting

 

The Current Limit Level Above Rated Frequency = (fs/fn) x k x LimitCur

  • fs: Running Frequency
  • fn: Rated Motor Frequency (d0-02)
  • k: Compensation Factor of speed multiplying Current Limit (A2-03)
  • LimitCur: Current Limit Level (A2-00)

VSD Current Limit Above Rated Frequency

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How to Setup On/Off Lights to indicate VSD Running Status

External On /Off lights can be used to indicate a VSDs running status by using the VSD Relay Outputs. In order to do that a Power Source can be connected to one of the VSD Relays with the Off Light connected to the Normally Closed Relay Output and the On Light connected to the Normally Open Relay Output. Using the Relay Output parameters, the Outputs can be controlled by the VSD Running Status by setting the following parameter:

  • When using Relay 1 (TA1-TB1-TC1), set b4-02 = 2
  • When using Relay 2 (TA2-TB2-TC2 or TA-TB-TC), set b4-03 = 2

Please Note: For Smaller Drives with only one set of Relays (TA-TB-TC), use the TA2-TB2-TC2 Relay parameter settings.

Relay On/Off Lights

Contact driving capacity:

  • 250 Vac, 3 A, COSø = 0.4
  • 30 Vdc, 1 A

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How to Setup Multiple Drives for Constant Water Pressure

SCENARIO

Use a Pressure Transmitter to measure water pressure in a pipe (use 4-20 mA Pressure Transmitter) and control the speed of 4 separate Drives based on a set Target Pressure – the Drives should start in sequence (and should only start if the first motor/s in the sequency already running are not able to achieve the target pressure). For example (see image later on) – the Leader Drive will be the first Drive to start running, and when it reaches 50hz and the pressure is still below the target pressure, the Follower 1 Drive will start running, then the Follower 2 Drive and then the Follower 3 Drive.

Please note that for Solar Drives this logic is somewhat adjusted – instead of using 50hz, the Start signal is set on a lower Frequency Reached value, thus, instead of triggering the next drive in the sequence when reaching full speed, the relay is set to trigger at a lower speed for the first drive (trigger frequency is increased slightly for each drive in the sequence). This is to allow for sudden drops in voltage (typically caused by sudden cloud cover) which might cause the drives to slow down momentarily (and would thus otherwise have caused all the Follower Drives to switch off because the Leader Drive slowed down momentarily). In addition to this the Solar Drives’ sensitivity (to PV input) is also adjusted (reduced for first the Drive and increased for each drive in the sequence).

When the measured water pressure (Pressure Transmitter Feedback) reaches the target pressure, the last Drive to start running will be the first to slow down (reduce Frequency) and keep slowing down until it reaches its Sleep Frequency (Hz) or until the pressure drops again. If the last running Drive reaches its Sleep Frequency and the pressure is still too high, the next Drive in the sequence should start slowing down. For example (see image later on) – if all 4 Drives are running and the target pressure is reached, the Follower 3 Drive will be the first Drive to start slowing down, and when it reaches its Sleep Frequency and the pressure is still above the target pressure, the Follower 2 Drive will start slowing down, then the Follower 1 Drive and then the Leader Drive. For this it is however important that the target pressures for the various drives are not all set the same (it’s important for the last Drive in the sequence to start slowing down first) – the Leader Drive should have the highest Target Pressure setting with the Target Pressure set somewhat less for each Follower Drive in the sequence. For example – set the Target Pressure for the Leader Drive = 4 bar, the Target Pressure for the Follower 1 Drive = 3.8 bar, the Target Pressure for the Follower 2 Drive = 3.6 bar and for the Follower 3 Drive = 3.4 bar.

To set the Drives to stop (Sleep) before reaching a speed of Zero Hz, a Sleep Frequency (and WakeUp Pressure) will be specified. When a Drive slows its speed down to the specified sleep Frequency, the Drive will continue to slow down to a complete stop. Once the pressure drops to below the WakeUp Pressure, the Drive will automatically start again. Set the WakeUp Pressure of the Leader Drive the highest and then reduce it for each Follower Drive, with the last Follower Drive having the lowest WakeUp Pressure.

It is also important that the Sleep Delay Time for the various Follower Drives are set to be relatively short (to prevent multiple Drives from starting to slow down simultaneously) – Set the Sleep Delay Time of the Leader Drive the longest and then reduce it for each Follower Drive, with the last Follower Drive having the shortest Sleep Delay Time.

Please note that for Solar Drives there are also PV Sleep/WakeUp Frequency parameters (and Delay Times) which can be used (the first Sleep function and last WakeUp function to be triggered will force the Solar Drive into Sleep Mode or WakeUp Mode.

 

WIRING

  • Pressure Transmitter Wiring

The Pressure Transmitter will be wired to the Leader Drive (ensure AI2 input Jumper default position is set for mA), and then the Leader Drive’s Analog Output (0-10V) will be used to relay the Pressure Transmitter reading to all the Follower Drives’ AI1 inputs (ensure AI1 input Jumpers’ default position is set for V).

As an alternative, each drive can use its own Pressure Transmitter, in which case the reading does not need to be relayed from the Leader Drive to all the other Follower Drives.

  •  Digital Input and Relay Wiring

To ensure each Follower Drive can only activate (will then still only start depending on actual and target pressure settings) once the Drive before it in the sequence has reached full speed (50Hz) or Set Frequency Reached (for Solar Drives), each Follower Drive’s digital input (used for Run Command – Terminal Control Mode) will be connected to the Drive before its Relay Output (which is set to switch on once the drive before it reaches the required speed).

The Leader Drive will have a manual On/Off switch to start the system (the example includes a Intermediate Relay as well in order to quickly switch off the system during power failure to prevent Power Failure Errors and also to protect the Drives – this would not be applicable for Solar Drives).

Multiple Drives Constant Water Pressure Setup Wiring

 

PARAMETER SETTINGS

Please download the Excel File from HERE for all the parameter settings as used for this example (different sheets for VSDs and Solar Drives).

 

OTHER PROTECTION SETTINGS

The following protection feature should ideally also be set up:

* End of Curve Settings at least on the first drive – for VSDs, see FAQ Entry HERE, for Solar Drives, see FAQ And HERE.

* Dry Run on all Drives – for VSDs, see FAQ Entry HERE, for Solar Drives, see FAQ HERE.

 

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How to Setup Leader-Follower VSD Start/Stop Control (Sequential Start/Stop)

Many applications use two or more motors for operation, but sometimes some of the motors need not to start after some time interval after another motor (sequential control with some delay). Such a Leader-Follower (Master/Slave) Start and Stop application is thus where two or more VSDs are linked to maintain a predetermined order at which the motors are forced to Start and Stop. Typically, the first drive is configured as the “Leader” or “Master” and the subsequent drive/s that follow the master are referred to as the “Slaves” or “Followers”.

To use one VSDs Running State (VSD 1 = Master VSD) as a signal to specify another VSDs Start-up (VSD 2 = Follower VSD), please connect the VSDs and set the required parameters as follows:

Connections:

  • Connect Leader VSD TA2 with Follower VSD DI1
  • Connect Leader VSD TC2 with Follower VSD COM

Please Note: For Smaller Drives with only one set of Relays (TA-TB-TC), use the TA2-TB2-TC2 Relay parameter settings.

 

Parameter Settings VSD2 (Follower):

  • Set b0-02 = 1 (Terminal Control)
  • Set b3-00 = 1 (DI1 Forward Run) – this is the default value for b3-00
  • The Start can be delayed by setting b3-15 = DI1 ON delay time in seconds (max 3000s)
  • The Stop can be delayed by setting b3-16 = DI1 OFF delay time in seconds (max 3000s)

 

Parameter Settings VSD1 (Leader):

  • Set b4-03 = 2 (Frequency Inverter Running)
  • Alternative to the above, the following Relay States can also be used:
    • b4-03 = 7 (Frequency Upper Limit Reached)
    • b4-03 = 19, 20 or 21 (Reaching a Pre-defined Frequency)
    • b4-03 = 22 or 23 (Reaching a Pre-defined Current)
    • Alternative (or additional) delay options than the Follower VSD Digital delays, the Leader VSD Relay output can also be delayed by setting the Relay On or OFF delay time by setting parameters:
      • b4-14 = Relay 2 ON delay time in seconds (max 3000s)
      • b4-15 = Relay 2 OFF delay time in seconds (max 3000s)

 

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How to Setup Leader-Follower VSD Speed Synchronisation (Cascade Control)

A Leader-Follower (Master/Slave) application is where two or more drives are electronically synchronised (Cascade Control). Typically, the first drive is configured as the “Leader” or “Master” and the subsequent drive/s that follow the master are referred to as the “Slaves” or “Followers”.

To use one VSDs Running Frequency (VSD 1 = Master VSD) as a reference point to specify another VSDs Running Frequency (VSD 2 = Follower VSD), but also to set the Follower VSD to run at 80% of the speed of the Leader VSD, please connect the VSDs and set the required parameters as follows:

Connections:

  • Connect Leader VSD AO1 with Follower VSD AI1
  • Connect Leader VSD GND with Follower VSD GND

*Please use shielded cable to prevent electromagnetic interference by other appliances on the analog signal sent to the VSD. For EMC Mitigation: 1) Allow for at least 20cm distance between communication cables and motor wires. 2) Do not use the same cable tray. 3) Insert wires in metal pipes if possible.

 

Parameter Settings:

  • VSD 1 (Leader): Set B6-05 = 0.8 (Set AO1 Gain = 80%)
  • VSD 2 (Follower): Set B0-03 = 2 (Set main Frequency source = AI1)

 

For more information regarding the use of VSDs for Leader-Follower applications, please our blog entry here.

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How to Setup Leader-Follower Sequential Starting for Drives (Cascade Starting)

A Leader-Follower (Master/Slave) application is where two or more drives are electronically synchronised (Cascade Control). Typically, the first drive is configured as the “Leader” or “Master” and the subsequent drive/s that follow the master are referred to as the “Slaves” or “Followers”.

To use one Drive’s Running Frequency (Drive 1 = Master) as a reference point to specify when another Drive (Drive 2 = Follower) should start, please connect the Drives and set the required parameters as follows:

 

Connections:

To ensure each Follower Drive can only activate once the Drive before it in the sequence has reached a desired speed (Set Frequency Reached), each Follower Drive’s digital input (used for Run Command – Terminal Control Mode) will be connected to the Drive before its Relay Output (which is set to switch on once the drive before it reaches the required speed).

The Leader Drive will have a manual On/Off switch to start the system (the example includes a Intermediate Relay as well in order to quickly switch off the system during power failure to prevent Power Failure Errors and also to protect the Drives – this would not be applicable for Solar Drives).

Sequential Starting

 

Parameter Settings (VSDs and Solar Drives):

All drives will use Terminal Control as starting method: Set b0-02 = 1 / F0-02 = 1

  • Leader:
    • Set b4-02 = 17 / F5-04 = 3 (Relay to Switch when Frequency-level Detection FDT1 Output has been reached)
    • Set b4-22 / F8-19 = Desired speed (Hz) which should trigger the next drive to start
  • Follower 1:
    • Set b4-02 = 17 / F5-04 = 3 (Relay to Switch when Frequency-level Detection FDT1 Output has been reached)
    • Set b4-22 / F8-19 = Desired speed (Hz) which should trigger the next drive to start
  • Follower 2:
    • Set b4-02 = 17 / F5-04 = 3 (Relay to Switch when Frequency-level Detection FDT1 Output has been reached)
    • Set b4-22 / F8-19 = Desired speed (Hz) which should trigger the next drive to start

 

For more information regarding the use of VSDs for Leader-Follower applications, please our blog entry HERE.

For setting up Leader-Follower VSD Speed Synchronisation (Cascade Control), please see FAQ entry HERE.

 

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How to Setup Frequency Source Switching when using a VSD for Constant Pressure

Requirement:

A Constant Water Pressure Setup solution is required for a VSD with Water Pump, but for maintenance purposes it is required, on an ad hoc basis, to override the Constant Water Pressure Setup and run the motor at a predefined speed (irrespective of pressure).

Solution:

VSDs offer a Frequency Source Switchover function which can be used to alternate between 2 different Frequency Sources. Unfortunately, the built-in PID Setting Source option Pressure Mode (C0-00=7) cannot be used as a Switchover option due to clashes in logic when used in combination with other Frequency Sources. As an alternative one can however use the PID feature in a somewhat different way to overcome these problems. This requires different settings than the usual Constant Water Pressure settings and the double line display (Keypad) will not display the feedback pressure on the top keypad display line (will display the running Amps which is the default for VSDs). The display parameter (b9-11) can however be changed to rather display the PID Feedback (b9-11=16) value, which will help to provide an indication of what the feedback pressure is, but will require adjusting C0-05 (PID Feedback Range) to adjust the range to display it as according to the applicable pressure value. Please see: https://www.emheater.co.za/faq/faq-keypad-display/

To set this up, please follow the wiring and parameter suggestions as follows:

Wiring:

  • PID: Connect PID between +24V and AI2 and bridge GND and COM
  • Frequency Source Switch: Connect a Switch between DI3 and COM to be used to switch between Frequency Source X and Frequency Source Y
  • ON/OFF Switch: “If Required” – connect an On/Off Switch between DI1 and COM (and set b0-02=1)

Parameter Settings:

  • Set b0-03 = 8 (Main Frequency Source X = PID)
  • Set b0-04 = 6 (Auxiliary Frequency Source Y = Multi-Function)
  • Set b0-07 = 02 (Frequency Source Logic Selection = Switchover between X and Y)
  • Set b3-02 = 15 (DI3 = Frequency Source Switchover)
  • Set C0-00 = 0 (PID Setting Source = C0-01)
  • Set C0-03 = 1 (PID Feedback Source = AI2)
  • Set b5-12 = 2 and b5-14 = 10 (to align with a 4-20mA feedback range)
  • Set C0-01 = Set desired Target Pressure (Target Pressure as % of PID Feedback Range)
  • Set b2-26 = Set desired WakeUp Frequency (must be set before setting b2-24)
  • Set b2-27 = Set desired WakeUp Delay Time
  • Set b2-24 = Set desired Sleep Frequency (must be set after setting b2-26 since it must be smaller than b2-26)
  • Set b2-25 = Set desired Sleep Delay Time
  • Set C1-00 = Set desired frequency to be used after switching to Frequency Source Y (as a % of the Maximum Frequency as set by b0-13)

 

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How to Setup Forward and Reverse Running for a VSD

To setup a Forward and Reverse Running function for a drive a 3-way Switch can be used (see image below for wiring) with the following parameter settings:

  • Set b0-02 = 1 (Terminal Control) – This is to ensure the Start/Stop functions are triggered via the Terminal Controls.
  • Set b3-00 = 1 (To set DI1 as the Forward Run terminal)
  • Set b3-01 = 2 (To set DI2 as the Reverse Run terminal)

Rocker-Switch

 

As another option (without using rocker switch), 2 separate On/Off switches can also be used as follows:

  • Switch 1: Connect switch to DI1 and COM
  • Switch 2: Connect switch to DI2 and COM

Set the following parameter settings:

  • Set b0-02 = 1 (Terminal Control) – This is to ensure the Start/Stop functions are triggered via the Terminal Controls.
  • Set b3-00 = 1 (To set DI1 as the Forward Run terminal)
  • Set b3-01 = 2 (To set DI2 as the Reverse Run terminal)
  • Set b3-13 = 2 (To set the Terminal Command Mode to Three-Line mode)

Based on these the drive will operate as follows:

  • If Switch 1 is Off, the Drive will not Run the Motor (irrespective of the status of Switch 2)
  • If Switch 1 is On and:
    • Switch 2 is On: The Drive will Run the Motor in a FWD Direction
    • Switch 2 is Off: The Drive will Run the Motor in a REV Direction

 

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How to Setup Forward and Reverse Jogging for a VSD

To setup a Forward and Reverse Jogging function for a drive a Toggle Switch can be used (see image below for wiring) with the following parameter settings:

  • Set b0-02 = 1 (Terminal Control) – This is to ensure the Start/Stop functions are triggered via the Terminal Controls (Normal Start/Stop function will also require an external on/off switch).
  • Set b3-03 = 4 (To set DI4 as the Forward JOG terminal)
  • Set b3-04 = 5 (To set DI5 as the Reverse JOG terminal)
  • Set b2-00 = User Defined Value (Default value for JOG speed = 2Hz)
  • Set b2-01 = User Defined Value (Default JOG Acceleration time is model dependant)
  • Set b2-02 = User Defined Value (Default JOG Deceleration time is model dependant)

Toggle Switch

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How to Setup External Switches to control VSD Command Source Selection

VSDs can be set up to use 3 different Command Sources by setting Parameter b0-02:

  • 0 = Keypad / Operation Panel Control (LED on Keypad will be OFF)
  • 1 = Terminal Control (LED on Keypad will be ON)
  • 2 = Communication Control (LED on Keypad will BLINK)

 

Other than changing this using the b0-02 parameter, this can also be changed by connecting switches to the Digital Input Terminals (DI1 to DI5). The selected Digital input/s can then be programmed to use the following 2 functions to change the control mode:

  • Function 18 = Terminal 1 for Command Source Switchover -> If the Command Source is set to Terminal Control (b0-02 = 1), this terminal is used to perform switchover between Terminal Control and Keypad / Operation Panel control. If the Command Source is set to Communication Control (b0-02 = 2), this terminal is used to perform switchover between Communication Control and Keypad / Operation Panel control.
  • Function 19 = Terminal 2 for Command Source Switchover -> Used to perform switchover between Terminal Control and Communication Control. If the Command Source is Terminal Control, the system will switch over to Communication Control after this terminal becomes ON.

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How to Setup and Use the EMHEATER VSD PC Software

EMHEATER offers a basic software package which allows connection between a PC/Laptop and a VSD via a USB to RS485 Dongle. The Software Installation package can be downloaded from the Downloads page here and the User Guide can be downloaded from here.

The Software Package allows for viewing and editing VSD parameters (as well as downloading a copy which can be imported again at a later stage), it allows for running and stopping the VSD, and it allows for viewing and saving running parameters while the VSD is in operation.

USB Dongle Wiring

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How to Setup an Intermediate Relay to Power a VSD On/Off

In some instances, it might be required to switch a drive on/off by switching the power supply to the drive on/off (remote on/off power supply switch) – or required for a VSD to automatically start again after a power failure if it was switched on. Switching the power supply off while a drive is running a motor could however cause damage to the drive capacitors (cause instantaneous discharge shock impact on capacitors which will reduce the service life of the capacitors). It is therefore advised to rather install an Intermediate Relay to immediately instruct the VSD to Free Stop when a power failure occurs. This will also prevent the Err09 (Power Failure) fault occurring. Further to this, when switching the power supply immediately on again to start a motor could cause high current shocks if the motor did not yet stop completely (due to inertia), which could cause overcurrent failures. For these reasons one would rather use a Terminal Start/Stop method and also delay the start process. Doing this by switching the power source on and off can be accomplished by using an Intermediate Relay and setting the following Parameters:

  • Install the Intermediate Relay as per the diagram below – only one set of Normally open Contacts is required (the diagram is for a drive with Single Phase 230V supply. If the input voltage is 3-Phase 380V, choose a 380V Intermediate Relay)
  • Set b0-02 = 1 (Terminal Control)
  • Set b1-07 = 1 (Free Stop Mode)
  • Set b3-15 = 15.0 (DI1 On Delay time to delay the Start-up Process)

Intermediate Relay

    Intermediate Relay  

Intermediate Relay Connection

    Relay Connection

 

Using the above method will always use a Free Stop method. If this is not desired, the Intermediate Relay can also be connected to a different DI Terminal and COM with that DI Terminal function set = 43 (Free Stop) and also switching the DI logic (NO/NC) for that DI Terminal. Then a Normal Stop (Decelerate to Stop) method can be used for general Stop functions(b1-07=0) using the On/Off Switch and when there is a power failure the Intermediate Relay will ensure a Free Stop. Example: Connect Intermediate Relay to DI2 and COM and set b3-01=43 and then switch D12 logic by setting b3-25=00010.

Please Note: Using this method, when there is a power failure, the drive will go into Free Stop and switch off, and if the On/Off switch is still in an On state when the power returns, the drive will start automatically, but if it’s just a sudden power failure and the power returns very quickly before the drive switched off completely, the drive will not start automatically, the On/Off switch then first needs to be switched off and then on again (if it was still in an On state).

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How to Setup an External Stop/Start for Multiple VSDs

In some instances, it might be required to Start and Stop multiple motors simultaneously (in some cases it might be required to have a fixed delay between start-ups of the various motors, in which case delay can be set on the DI terminals for the specific VSDs). In order to do that using an external On/Off switch, the VSDs needs to wired to each other with a single On/Off Switch as follows:

Multiple VSDs On-Off Switch Wring

Then also set the following parameter on each VSD:

  • b0-02 = 1 (terminal control)

 

Note: If the External Switch has a Normally Closed connection (not Normally Open) the VSD Start/Stop function will operate in the opposite way intended. In this case, also set b3-25 = 00001(Low Level Valid).

Note: If it is required to delay the start of any of the specific motors (Cascade Control), for that motor VSD, set a Start delay on DI1 using b3-15 (DI1 ON delay time). If it is required to delay the stop of any of the specific motors, for that motor VSD, set a Stop delay on DI1 using b3-16 (DI1 OFF delay time).

If these VSDs also need to Stop simultaneously in the event of a Fault occurring on any one of the VSDs, each VSDs Relay output (with Fault Output trigger) also needs to be wired into the circuit as follows:

Multiple VSDs On-Off Switch With Fault Stop

The also set the following Relay parameter on each VSD:

  • b4-03 = 3 (Fault Output)

Please Note: For Smaller Drives with only one set of Relays (TA-TB-TC), use the TA2-TB2-TC2 Relay parameter settings.

Please see example of Large VSD Control Board with 2 sets of Relays below:

Large VSD Control Board

* Please Note: If the On/Off Switch is in the On state and a power failure occurs, the VSDs will automatically start again when the power returns (for such a scenario its best to rather make use of a Free Stop Mode for both VSDs and also allow for a Start Delay on the First VSD when the power returns). It is however not ideal to Start/Stop a VSD by switching the power supply On/Off – which is typically the case with regular power failures (causes instantaneous discharge shock impact on capacitors which will reduce the service life of the capacitors) – for a better method of achieving this using an Intermediate Relay, please see the following FAQ Entry: How to Setup an Intermediate Relay to Power a VSD On/Off. A better Stop/Start method for the first VSD would be to use separate Stop and Start Push Buttons as described below:

When using Push Buttons use a 3-Line Mode Stop/Start Setup:

  • b0-02 = 1 (Terminal Control)
  • b3-13 = 2 (3-Line Mode 1)
  • b3-00 = 1 (RUN Enabled) -> DI1 Terminal Connection
  • b3-02 = 3 (3-Line Control) -> DI3 Terminal Connection
  • 3rd Line Connected to COM

If using FWD/REV as well with above, set:

  • b3-13 = 3 (3-Line Mode 2)
  • b3-01 = 2 (FWD/REV) -> DI2 Terminal Connection

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How to Setup an External Stop/Start for a VSD

Setup External On/Off Switch (Single On/Off Selector)

When using a normal Open/Close Switch, connect the Normally Open wire with DI1 and the Common wire with Common and then set:

  • b0-02 = 1 (terminal control)

Ideally also set the following (please see notes further on for further explanation):

  • Set b1-07 = 1 (Free Stop Mode)
  • Set b3-15 = 15.0 (DI1 On Delay time to delay the Start-up Process)

If the External Device only has a Normally Closed connection (not Normally Open) the VSD Start/Stop function will operate in the opposite way intended. In this case, also set:

  • b3-25 = 00001(Low Level Valid)

* Please Note: If the On/Off Switch is in the On state and a power failure occurs, the VSD will automatically start again when the power returns (for such a scenario its best to rather make use of a Free Stop Mode and also allow for a Start Delay when the power returns). It is however not ideal to Start/Stop a VSD by switching the power supply On/Off – which is typically the case with regular power failures (causes instantaneous discharge shock impact on capacitors which will reduce the service life of the capacitors) – for a better method of achieving this using an Intermediate Relay, please see the following FAQ Entry: How to Setup an Intermediate Relay to Power a VSD On/Off. A better Stop/Start method would be to use separate Stop and Start Push Buttons as described below:

 

Setup of External Push Buttons (On and Off Buttons)

When using Push Buttons use a 3-Line Mode Stop/Start Setup:

  • b0-02 = 1 (Terminal Control)
  • b3-13 = 2 (3-Line Mode 1)
  • b3-00 = 1 (RUN Enabled) -> DI1 Terminal Connection
  • b3-02 = 3 (3-Line Control) -> DI3 Terminal Connection
  • 3rd Line Connected to COM

If using FWD/REV as well with above, set:

  • b3-13 = 3 (3-Line Mode 2)
  • b3-01 = 2 (FWD/REV) -> DI2 Terminal Connection

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How to Setup an External Potentiometer for Speed Control for a VSD

Instead of using the Potentiometer on the drive Keypad, an external Potentiometer can also be used for speed control (which can then be installed at an alternate location). This can be done by connecting the External Potentiometer to the Drive Control Terminals as follows (for a 3-Wire Potentiometer):

  • Connect the Power Pins of the Potentiometer (usually the outside 2 connection points) to the +10V and GND terminals on the Drive (Swop connections for Clockwise vs Anti-Clockwise Operation).
  • Connect the Output/Signal Pin of the Potentiometer to AI1 (usually the centre connection point). Please note that the AI1 jumper on the control board needs to be set to use 0~10V (which is the default). When using AI2 or AI3 the jumper needs to be set accordingly.
  • Set b0-03 = 2 (to use AI1 as speed reference point)

Potentiometer Wiring

Potentiometer Wiring

*Please Note:

  • Swopping the Voltage and Ground wires on the Potentiometer will change the Acceleration/Deceleration direction (Clockwise vs Anti-Clockwise).
  • Only use Potentiometers with a resistance range of 1 kΩ~5kΩ.
  • Please use shielded cable to prevent electromagnetic interference by other appliances on the analog signal sent to the VSD. For EMC Mitigation: 1) Allow for at least 20cm distance between communication cables and motor wires. 2) Do not use the same cable tray. 3) Insert wires in metal pipes if possible.

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How to Setup an External Potentiometer for FWD/REV and Speed Control for a VSD

Instead of using the Potentiometer on the drive Keypad, an external Potentiometer can also be used for FWD/REV direction and speed control (which can then be installed at an alternate location). This can be done by connecting the External Potentiometer to the Drive Control Terminals as follows (for a 3-Wire Potentiometer):

  • Connect the Power Pins of the Potentiometer (usually the outside 2 connection points) to the +10V and GND terminals on the Drive (Swop connections for Clockwise vs Anti-Clockwise Operation).
  • Connect the Output/Signal Pin of the Potentiometer to AI1 (usually the centre connection point). Please note that the AI1 jumper on the control board needs to be set to use 0~10V (which is the default). When using AI2 or AI3 the jumper needs to be set accordingly (Please use shielded cable to prevent electromagnetic interference by other appliances on the analog signal sent to the VSD).

 

To set the Drive for Terminal Control (Start/Stop/Speed Control via Potentiometer):

  • b0-02 = 1 (Command Source Selection = Terminal Control)
  • b3-00 = 0 (DI1 = No Function -> This allows for VDI1 to bet set = 1)
  • b7-00 = 1 (VDI1 function set as RUNNING Command)

To set the Drive to use the Potentiometer connected to AI1 as speed reference:

  • b0-03 = 2 (Main Frequency Source = AI1)

 

Since the Potentiometer will be used for Forward and Reverse control as well as to STOP the drive, a 4-point curve (to ensure linear acceleration and deceleration) and Voltage Limit Protection setup is advised.

  • To set the 4-Point Curve and STOP criteria:
    • b5-44 = H.324 (AI Curve Selection = last digit is for AI1 Curve = 4 -> Curve 4: 4-Point)
    • b7-11 = 34 (VDO1 function set = AI1 Input Exceeding Limitation -> will initiate STOP in case of AI1 output failing b5-05 or b5-06 limits)
    • b5-05 = 4.50V (AI1 Input Voltage Lower Limit of Protection)
    • b5-06 = 5.50V (AI1 Input Voltage Upper Limit of Protection)

–>  These two parameters (b5-05 / b5-06) prevents operation and will STOP the drive in the voltage range of 4.5 to 5.5 V.

  • To set the linear acceleration/deceleration curves:
    • b5-24 = 4.50V (AI Curve 4 Inflection Point 1 Input)
    • b5-25 = 0.0% (Corresponding Setting of AI curve 4 inflection point 1 Input) -> % of Max Hz
    • b5-26 = 5.50V (AI Curve 4 Inflection Point 2 Input)
    • b5-27 = 0.0% (Corresponding Setting of AI curve 4 inflection point 2 Input) -> % of Max Hz
  • To set the FWD and REV speed (frequency) limits:
    • b5-23 = -100.0% (Corresponding Setting of AI1 Curve 4 Minimum Input) – to allow the speed to go to 50Hz in Reverse direction (% of Max Hz)
    • b5-29 = 100.0% (Corresponding Setting of AI1 Curve 4 Maximum Input) – to allow the speed to go to 50Hz in Forward direction (% of Max Hz)

 

Since we are using the 10V input, leave the following parameters as per their default values:

  • b5-22= 0.00V (AI Curve 4 Minimum Input)
  • b5-28=10.00V (AI Curve 4 Maximum Input)

 

It is also possible to use a 2-Point curve (especially if the range for the STOP criteria is negligibly small). In such a scenario, the following parameter settings would apply:

  • b5-44 = H.321 (Curve 1: 2-Point)
  • b5-07 = 0.00V (AI1 input Minimum Value)
  • b5-08 = -100.0% (Corresponding setting of AI1 minimum input value)
  • b5-09 = 10.00V (AI1 input Maximum Value)
  • b5-10 = 100.0% (Corresponding setting of AI1 maximum input value)

Potentiometer FWD and REV

*Please Note:

  • Swopping the Voltage and Ground wires on the Potentiometer will change the Acceleration/Deceleration direction (Clockwise vs Anti-Clockwise).
  • Only use Potentiometers with a resistance range of 1 kΩ~5kΩ.
  • Please use shielded cable to prevent electromagnetic interference by other appliances on the analog signal sent to the VSD. For EMC Mitigation: 1) Allow for at least 20cm distance between communication cables and motor wires. 2) Do not use the same cable tray. 3) Insert wires in metal pipes if possible.

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How to Setup an External Fault Device to Stop a VSD

Setup an External Fault Device to Stop a VSD (but still use Keypad Start/Stop function):

From the External Device, connect the Normally Open or Normally Closed wire with DI1 and connect the Common wire with Common and then set:

  • If it is a Normally Open connection:
    • b3-00 = 38 (default = 01)
  • If it is a Normally Closed connection:
    • b3-00 = 39 (default = 01)

 

In this scenario, keep b0-02 = 0 (Default: Keypad Control) to allow for the VSD to Start/Stop using the VSD keypad. If the External device Stops the VSD the VSD will show Err15 which indicates that the external fault device caused the VSD to stop.

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How to Setup an External Device to read the VSD On/Off Status

  • Connect a relay output to monitor whether the inverter is running or not (inverter status)
  • If you use Relay 1, set b4-02 = 2

Please Note: For Smaller Drives with only one set of Relays (TA-TB-TC), use the TA2-TB2-TC2 Relay parameter settings.

 

Contact driving capacity:

  • 250 Vac, 3 A, COSø = 0.4
  • 30 Vdc, 1 A

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How to Setup an Emergency Stop for a VSD

  • Set b1-07 = 0 (default)

From the External Device, connect the Normally Closed wire with DI1 and Common with Common and then set:

  • Set b3-00 = 44 (Emergency Stop)
  • If the External Device is Normally Open, also set b3-25 = 1

*When the terminal becomes ON, the VSD stops within the shortest time. During the stop process, the current remains at the set current upper limit (to enable the VSD to stop in emergency state).

*When using a normal deceleration stoppage procedure and reducing the deceleration time to a very short time, a brake unit and/or resistor might be required to burn off the excess energy (not required for above Emergency Stop Procedure – only if stoppage time needs to be reduced even further than what is possible via the emergency stop).

  • For VSDs more than 22KW, a brake unit and brake resistor is also needed.
  • For VSDs up to 22kW a brake resistor is already built in, but an additional brake unit might be required depending on the application.

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How to Setup a VSD with AI Input Overrun Limit (Pressure Transmitter Example)

To set up a EMHEATER VSD with a Pressure Transmitter to provide protection against over pressure, the pressure transmitter can be set up as a STOP trigger to stop the VSD once a certain pressure value has been reached. To do this, please see the below wiring and parameter settings.

Wiring

  • Connect GND and COM
  • Connect Pressure Transmitter to 24V and AI1
  • Set AI1 jumper to I

Pressure Transmitter Wiring

*Please use shielded cable to prevent electromagnetic interference by other appliances on the analog signal sent to the VSD. For EMC Mitigation: 1) Allow for at least 20cm distance between communication cables and motor wires. 2) Do not use the same cable tray. 3) Insert wires in metal pipes if possible.

To set AI1 Min/Max Values

The AI1 Min/Max Parameter settings ranges between 0V and 10V (in this example the output will not be Volt but rather mA, but the parameter will still be set as if it is a ‘Volt’ value). Since the output from the Pressure Transmitter is 4-20mA, the max of 20mA will correspond to 10V and the minimum of 4mA will correspond to 2V (10V/20mA = 0.5 and then 0.5 * 4mA = 2V). Therefore, the ‘Volt’ equivalent output of the Pressure Transmitter will be 2V to 10V. Thus set:

  • b5-07= 2.00 (AI1 Minimum input value)
  • b5-09 = 10.00 (AI1 Maximum input value)

 

To set the STOP function for the Input Limit

  • b7-00 = 38 (VDI1 function selection = Normally Open input of external fault)
  • b7-11 = 34 (AI1 input limit exceeded – will give Error15 if AI1 Input limit is exceeded – Press ‘Reset’ (STOP) to clear the Error)

 

To set the Input Limit (max Bar before STOP)

  • b5-05=0.00 (AI1 input voltage lower limit of protection – will also STOP when input value = 0V, which is not applicable in this scenario as the Minimum is 2V)
  • b5-06 = Value based on Pressure Limit (AI1 input voltage upper limit of protection – see calculation further down)

 

To set the Top Line of the Keypad Display to show the AI1 Output (‘Volt’ equivalent output of the Pressure Transmitter)

  • b9-11 = 9 (U0-09 = AI1 voltage)

 

Calculating b5-06 (based on Pressure Limit)

Since the Output = (b5-07) 2 to (b5-09) 10, this means the value Range = 8 (10 – 2). So, a 50% output from the Pressure Transmitter will provide a value of 6V, derived as 8 (Range) * 50% + 2 (b5-07: the minimum input value). Example:

To set the max pressure of a 25 Bar Transmitter = 15 Bar, use 15 / 25 = 0.6 and calculate b5-06 as 8 (Range) * 0.6 + 2 = 6.8 (Thus, set b5-06 = 6.8)

The below chart shows different ‘Voltage’ outputs and Bar (Pressure) readings for 2 different Pressure Transmitters (a 10 Bar and 25 Bar Transmitter).

 

For other similar scenarios please also see:

– To set up a EMHEATER VSD with a Pressure Transmitter to provide Constant Water Pressure using the VSD Parameters to set a Fixed Target Pressure, please see the relevant FAQ entry here.

– To set up a EMHEATER VSD with a Pressure Transmitter to provide Constant Water Pressure using an external analog signal (such as a PLC) to modify the target pressure (Variable Target Pressure), please see the relevant FAQ entry Here.

– To set up a EMHEATER VSD with a Pressure Transmitter to provide Constant Water Pressure using an external Multi-Stage Switch to modify the target pressure (Target Pressure Selector), please see the relevant FAQ entry Here.

– To set up a EMHEATER VSD with a Pressure Transmitter for Frequency Control using a PID (Manage Water Outflow), please see the relevant FAQ entry Here.

– To set up a EMHEATER VSD with a Pressure Transmitter for Frequency Control using a PID (Manage Water Inflow), please see the relevant FAQ entry Here.

For additional Protection Features, please also see:

– To set up a EMHEATER VSD End of Curve Parameters (PID Signal Loss Protection), please see the relevant FAQ entry Here.

– To set up a EMHEATER VSD Low Current Protection (Dry Run Protection), please see the relevant FAQ entry Here.

– To set up a EMHEATER VSD Restart (Delayed) after Low Current Protection Condition Occurred (Dry Run Protection Reset), please see the relevant FAQ entry Here.

 

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How to Setup a VSD to use the built-in simple PLC as Frequency Source

When the simple programmable logic controller (PLC) mode is used as the frequency source, the running frequency of the drive can be switched over among the 16 frequency points (Multi-Function Group C1 Parameters). You can set the holding times and acceleration/deceleration times of the 16 frequency points using the Simple PLC Group C2 Parameters.

Assume for example a scenario where the VSD should accelerate during start-up up to 40Hz, and then maintain that speed for 3 minutes (180s), after which it should then accelerate further to 50Hz.

Set the following parameters:

  • b0-03 = 7 (Main Frequency Source = Built-in PLC)
  • C1-00 = 80% (Multi-Function 0 = 80% of 50Hz = 40Hz)
  • C1-01 = 100% (Multi-Function 1= 100% of 50Hz = 50Hz)
  • C2-00 = 1 (To keep the value after the cycle is complete)
  • C2-02 = 180s (Running time of simple PLC segment 0 – corresponding to Multi-Function 0)
  • C2-03 = 0 (Acceleration/Deceleration time of segment 0 – where 0 = b0-21/22; 1 = b2-03/4; 2 = b2-05/6; 3 = b2-07/8)
  • C2-04 = 1s (Running time of simple PLC segment 1 – corresponding to Multi-Function 1)
  • C2-05 = 0 (Acceleration/Deceleration time of segment 0 – where 0 = b0-21/22; 1 = b2-03/4; 2 = b2-05/6; 3 = b2-07/8)

* Please Note: Do not set b0-18=1 to Reverse the Direction of the motor when using the Simple PLC, if the motor direction needs to be changed, ideally change the motor wiring or use negative values when setting the Multi-Function Parameters (C1-00 and C1-01 in the above example).

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How to Setup a VSD to Auto Start after Power Failure

Connect a On/Off Switch between terminals DI1 and Common and then set:

  • b0-02 = 1 (terminal control)
  • b1-07 = 1 (free stop mode)
  • b3-15 = 15 (DI1 On Delay time to delay the Start-up Process)

When the switch is On, the VSD will Start and Run the motor. If a power failure occurs, the VSD will automatically start the motor up again once the power supply returns.

* Please Note: This is not ideal if the requirement is to Start/Stop a VSD by switching the power supply On/Off (causes instantaneous discharge shock impact on capacitors which will reduce the service life of the capacitors) – for a better method of achieving this using an Intermediate Relay, please see the following FAQ Entry: How to Setup an Intermediate Relay to Power a VSD On/Off

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How to Setup a VSD for specific Motor Parameters

To setup a VSD for a specific motor:

  • Make sure that all Motor Parameters has been set (d0-00 up to d0-04)

d0-00: Motor Rated Power
d0-01: Motor Rated Voltage
d0-02: Motor Rated Current
d0-03: Motor Rated Frequency
d0-04: Motor Rated Speed

  • Perform Auto tuning if applicable/required.

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How to Setup a VSD for Crane/Hoist/Lift/Winch Applications

To set up a EMHEATER VSD for a Crane/Hoist/Lift/Winch Application, please see the Crane/Hoist/Lift/Winch Setup Excel file (available for download) which provides an example to installers of the various parameters to be set and the applicable values to be used.

Please Note: For Smaller Drives with only one set of Relays (TA-TB-TC), use the TA2-TB2-TC2 Relay parameter settings.

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How to Setup a VSD for Constant Water Pressure (Variable Target Pressure)

The following scenario explains how to set up a EMHEATER VSD with a Pressure Transmitter to provide Constant Water Pressure using an external analog signal (such as a PLC) to modify the target pressure (Variable Target Pressure).

For other similar scenarios please also see:

– To set up a EMHEATER VSD with a Pressure Transmitter to provide Constant Water Pressure using the VSD Parameters to set a Fixed Target Pressure, please see the relevant FAQ entry here.

– To set up a EMHEATER VSD with a Pressure Transmitter to provide Constant Water Pressure using an external Multi-Stage Switch to modify the target pressure (Target Pressure Selector), please see the relevant FAQ entry Here.

– To set up a EMHEATER VSD with a Pressure Transmitter for Frequency Control using a PID (Manage Water Outflow), please see the relevant FAQ entry Here.

– To set up a EMHEATER VSD with a Pressure Transmitter for Frequency Control using a PID (Manage Water Inflow), please see the relevant FAQ entry Here.

– To set up a EMHEATER VSD with AI Input Overrun Limit (using a Pressure Transmitter as STOP), please see the relevant FAQ entry Here.

For additional Protection Features, please also see:

– To set up a EMHEATER VSD End of Curve Parameters (PID Signal Loss Protection), please see the relevant FAQ entry Here.

– To set up a EMHEATER VSD Low Current Protection (Dry Run Protection), please see the relevant FAQ entry Here.

– To set up a EMHEATER VSD Restart (Delayed) after Low Current Protection Condition Occurred (Dry Run Protection Reset), please see the relevant FAQ entry Here.

SCENARIO

Use a Pressure Transmitter to measure water pressure in a pipe (use 4-20 mA Pressure Transmitter) and control the speed of the VSD based on a Target Pressure as set using a PLC input (use 4-20 mA PLC Input). If a 20 Bar Pressure Transmitter is used it will read 12 mA from the Pressure Transmitter if the water pressure in the pipe is 10 Bar – if the PLC sends a signal of 16 mA the target pressure is seen as 15 Bar and then the VSD speed will increase until the Pressure Transmitter feedback also equals 16 mA (and thus equals 15 Bar).

When the measured water pressure (Pressure Transmitter Feedback) reaches the target pressure (PLC Input), the VSD speed (Frequency) will slow down and keep slowing down until it stops (0 Hz) or until the pressure drops again. To set the VSD to stop (Sleep) before reaching a speed of Zero Hz, a Sleep and WakeUp Frequency can also be specified (Sleep/WakeUp feature can be activated or deactivated depending on requirements). If the VSD slows its speed down to the specified sleep Frequency, the VSD will immediately continue to slow down to a complete stop. Once the speed required to reach the target pressure is more than the WakeUp frequency, the VSD will automatically start again.

WIRING

  • Pressure Transmitter Wiring

Connect to AI2 and +24V (Jumper default position is set for mA)

  • PLC Input Wiring

Connect to AI1 and +24V (Set the Jumper to mA – default is for Volts)

  • Connect COM and GND

 

PARAMETER SETTINGS

For the Pressure Transmitter (4-20 mA / 0-20 Bar) Feedback Set:

  • C0-03 = 1 (PID Feedback Source – to use AI2 as Feedback Source)
  • B0-03 = 8 (PID Control – This is set so the VSD uses the PID to Control the Frequency)
  • B5-12 = 2 (Minimum Value of the Analog Input – Value of Minimum Transmitter output if the range is updated to correspond to a 0-10 value range)
  • B5-14 = 10 (Maximum Value of the Analog Input – Value of Maximum Transmitter output if the range is updated to correspond to a 0-10 value range)

For the PLC Input (4-20 mA / 0-20 Bar) Set:

  • C0-00 = 1 (AI1 – This is set so the VSD uses AI1 as Input from the PLC to determine the Target Pressure)
  • B5-07 = 2 (Minimum Value of the Analog Input – Value of Minimum PLC output if the range is updated to correspond to a 0-10 value range)
  • B5-09 = 10 (Maximum Value of the Analog Input – Value of Maximum PLC output if the range is updated to correspond to a 0-10 value range)

For the Sleep / WakeUp Function Set:

  • C3-09 = 0 (If setting C0-00 = 1 and C3-09 = 1 then there is NO Sleep / WakeUp Function (Disabled)).
  • B2-24 = Dormancy Frequency (Frequency used as Switch OFF frequency to go to Sleep)
  • B2-25 = Dormant Delay Time (Time delay before VSD goes to Sleep when reaching b2-25 Frequency)
  • B2-26 = WakeUp Frequency (Frequency used as Switch ON frequency to Start the VSD)
  • B2-27 =WakeUp Delay Time (Time delay before VSD STARTS again when reaching b2-26 Frequency to reach the target pressure)

The following table illustrates how/when the Sleep/WakeUp function is Activated/Disabled:

Sleep-WakeUp-Functions

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How to Setup a VSD for Constant Water Pressure (Manual Switch for Target Pressure Selection)

The following scenario explains how to set up a EMHEATER VSD with a Pressure Transmitter to provide Constant Water Pressure using an external Position Selector (Multi-Step) Switch to modify the target pressure (Target Pressure Selector).

For other similar scenarios please also see:

– To set up a EMHEATER VSD with a Pressure Transmitter to provide Constant Water Pressure using the VSD Parameters to set a Fixed Target Pressure, please see the relevant FAQ entry here.

– To set up a EMHEATER VSD with a Pressure Transmitter to provide Constant Water Pressure using an external analog signal (such as a PLC) to modify the target pressure (Variable Target Pressure), please see the relevant FAQ entry Here.

– To set up a EMHEATER VSD with a Pressure Transmitter for Frequency Control using a PID (Manage Water Outflow), please see the relevant FAQ entry Here.

– To set up a EMHEATER VSD with a Pressure Transmitter for Frequency Control using a PID (Manage Water Inflow), please see the relevant FAQ entry Here.

– To set up a EMHEATER VSD with AI Input Overrun Limit (using a Pressure Transmitter as STOP), please see the relevant FAQ entry Here.

For additional Protection Features, please also see:

– To set up a EMHEATER VSD End of Curve Parameters (PID Signal Loss Protection), please see the relevant FAQ entry Here.

– To set up a EMHEATER VSD Low Current Protection (Dry Run Protection), please see the relevant FAQ entry Here.

– To set up a EMHEATER VSD Restart (Delayed) after Low Current Protection Condition Occurred (Dry Run Protection Reset), please see the relevant FAQ entry Here.

SCENARIO

Use a Pressure Transmitter to measure water pressure in a pipe (use 4-20 mA Pressure Transmitter) and control the speed of the VSD based on a Target Pressure as set using a Position Selector (Multi-Step) Switch. If a 10 Bar Pressure Transmitter is used it will read 12 mA from the Pressure Transmitter if the water pressure in the pipe is 5 Bar – if the Position Selector (Multi-Step) Switch is set to specify a target pressure of 5 Bar and the VSD speed will increase until the Pressure Transmitter feedback also equals 12 mA (and thus equals 5 Bar).

When the measured water pressure (Pressure Transmitter Feedback) reaches the target pressure (as set using the Position Selector Switch), the VSD speed (Frequency) will slow down and keep slowing down until it stops (0 Hz) or until the pressure drops again. To set the VSD to stop (Sleep) before reaching a speed of Zero Hz, a Sleep and WakeUp Frequency can also be specified (Sleep/WakeUp feature can be activated or deactivated depending on requirements). If the VSD slows its speed down to the specified sleep Frequency, the VSD will immediately continue to slow down to a complete stop. Once the speed required to reach the target pressure is more than the WakeUp frequency, the VSD will automatically start again.

 

Position Selector (Multi-Step) Switch WIRING

Wired to DI3 and DI4 and COM

3 Speed Selection Switch Setup

Position Selector (Multi-Step) Switch PARAMETER SETTINGS

To specify the Digital Terminals used by the Position Selector Switch:

  • b3-02 = 6 (To set DI3 Terminal as Multi-Function Terminal 1)
  • b3-03 = 7 (To set DI4 Terminal as Multi-Function Terminal 2)

 

To set the Pressure Transmitter Max Feedback (PID Setting Feedback Range):

  • C0-05 = User Defined Value (10 for 10 Bar Pressure Transmitter)

 

To Define the Target Pressure:

  • C1-01 = User Defined Value (to set Reference 1 pressure as a percentage of C0-05)
  • C1-00 = User Defined Value (to set Reference 0 pressure as a percentage of C0-05)
  • C1-02 = User Defined Value (to set Reference 2 pressure as a percentage of C0-05)
  • b0-13 = User Defined Value (max speed default = 50Hz)

 

* For a detailed article regarding “How to Setup a Manual Speed Selector Switch”, please FAQ entry here.

 

Update Keypad Monitoring Parameters

To set the top display line to show the Feedback Pressure, set:

  • b9-11 = 16 (16 = U0-16 PID Feedback)

 

To add the Target Pressure to the bottom display line set:

Parameters Displayed while in Run Status:

    • b9-02 = H.801F

Parameters Displayed while in Stop Status:

    • b9-04 = H.0833

 

* For more detailed articles on updating the Parameters being displayed on the Keypad, please see:

  • How to Change the Default Keypad Parameter Display Lines for Double Line Keypads FAQ entry here.
  • How to Change the List of Parameters Displayed on the Keypad FAQ entry here.

 

PID WIRING

  • Pressure Transmitter Wiring

Connect to AI2 and +24V (Jumper default position is set for mA)

  • Connect COM and GND

 

PID PARAMETER SETTINGS

For the Pressure Transmitter (4-20 mA / 0-10 Bar) Feedback Set:

  • C0-03 = 1 (PID Feedback Source – to use AI2 as Feedback Source)
  • C0-00 = 6 (PID Setting Source – to use Multi-Function as Setting Source)
  • B0-03 = 8 (PID Control – This is set so the VSD uses the PID to Control the Frequency)
  • B5-12 = 2 (Minimum Value of the Analog Input – Value of Minimum Transmitter output if the range is updated to correspond to a 0-10 value range)
  • B5-14 = 10 (Maximum Value of the Analog Input – Value of Maximum Transmitter output if the range is updated to correspond to a 0-10 value range)

 

For the Sleep / WakeUp Function Set:

  • C3-09 = 0 (If setting C0-00 = 1 and C3-09=1 then there is NO Sleep / WakeUp Function (Disabled)).
  • B2-24 = Dormancy Frequency (Frequency used as Switch OFF frequency to go to Sleep)
  • B2-25 = Dormant Delay Time (Time delay before VSD goes to Sleep when reaching b2-25 Frequency)
  • B2-26 = WakeUp Frequency (Frequency used as Switch ON frequency to Start the VSD)
  • B2-27 =WakeUp Delay Time (Time delay before VSD STARTS again when reaching b2-26 Frequency to reach the target pressure)

The following table illustrates how/when the Sleep/WakeUp function is Activated/Disabled:

Sleep-WakeUp-Functions

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How to Setup a VSD for Constant Water Pressure (Fixed Target Pressure)

To set up a EMHEATER VSD with a Pressure Transmitter to provide Constant Water Pressure using the VSD Parameters to set a Fixed Target Pressure, please see the Constant Water Supply Guide Excel file (available for download) which explains and guides installers through the process of determining the various parameters to be set and the applicable values to be used. For more information regarding the use of VSDs for constant water pressure, please our blog entry Here.

For other similar scenarios please also see:

– To set up a EMHEATER VSD with a Pressure Transmitter to provide Constant Water Pressure using an external analog signal (such as a PLC) to modify the target pressure (Variable Target Pressure), please see the relevant FAQ entry Here.

– To set up a EMHEATER VSD with a Pressure Transmitter to provide Constant Water Pressure using an external Multi-Stage Switch to modify the target pressure (Target Pressure Selector), please see the relevant FAQ entry Here.

– To set up a EMHEATER VSD with a Pressure Transmitter for Frequency Control using a PID (Manage Water Outflow), please see the relevant FAQ entry Here.

– To set up a EMHEATER VSD with a Pressure Transmitter for Frequency Control using a PID (Manage Water Inflow), please see the relevant FAQ entry Here.

– To set up a EMHEATER VSD with AI Input Overrun Limit (using a Pressure Transmitter as STOP), please see the relevant FAQ entry Here.

For additional Protection Features, please also see:

– To set up a EMHEATER VSD End of Curve Parameters (PID Signal Loss Protection), please see the relevant FAQ entry Here.

– To set up a EMHEATER VSD Low Current Protection (Dry Run Protection), please see the relevant FAQ entry Here.

– To set up a EMHEATER VSD Restart (Delayed) after Low Current Protection Condition Occurred (Dry Run Protection Reset), please see the relevant FAQ entry Here.

 

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How to Setup a T-Series VSD for Synchronous Motors

Set the following parameters when installing a T-Series VSD for Synchronous Motors:

Motor Parameters:

  • b0-00 = 2 (Motor type set to synchronous motor)
  • b0-13 = Set as motor nameplate (Maximum frequency)
  • b0-15 = Set as motor nameplate (Frequency upper limit)
  • d0-00 = Set as motor nameplate (Motor rated power)
  • d0-01 = Set as motor nameplate (Motor rated voltage)
  • d0-02 = Set as motor nameplate (Motor rated current)
  • d0-03 = Set as motor nameplate (Motor rated frequency)
  • d0-04 = Set as motor nameplate (Motor rated speed)

Motor Control Mode:

  • b0-01 = 0 (Open-loop vector control)

Motor Auto Tuning:

  • If the Motor can be disconnected from the load: Set d0-30 = 12 (dynamic no-load auto tuning), press RUN and wait for about 20s to complete the auto tuning process.
  • If the Motor cannot be disconnected from the load: Set d0-30 = 11 (static auto tuning), press RUN and wait for about 10s to complete the auto tuning process.

If oscillation occurs during operation, the vector control parameter gain parameters (d1-01 ~ d1-05) can be adjusted (for parameter descriptions, please refer to the EM15 series manual). Increase Proportional Gain and decrease Integral Time to increase the gain. The acceleration and deceleration time b0-21 and b0-22 can also be adjusted (generally does not need to be adjusted).

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How to Setup a Manual Speed Selector Switch for a VSD

In some instances it might be required to have various predefined speed selections for a drive using a manual Position Selector (Multi-Step) Switch. This can be achieved by using an external Position Selector (Multi-Step) Switch connected to the drive’s Multi-Function Terminals and programming the Multi-Function References accordingly.

Consider a scenario using a 3-stage switch as per the example below, where the switch selections should reflect speeds of 50% (25Hz), 70% (35Hz) and 100% (50Hz) of the Max speed (50Hz). To achieve this the switch needs to be connected to the Digital Input Terminals of the Drive. Since the Switch selection Option 0 (K2) is always off (only K1 and K2 switches On/Off), only Option 1 (K1) and Option 2 (K2) needs to be connected. In the example below K1 is connected to DI3 and K2 connected to DI4 (thus requiring setting parameters b3-02 and b3-03 accordingly). Based on the Switch Options table below these options thus reflect Multi-Function References 1, 0 and 2 in the below table (thus requiring setting parameters C1-01, C1-00 and C1-02 as a percentage of b0-13). To ensure the Drive acknowledges this setup as the Speed Reference Point for the Drive, also set b0-03 = 6 (Multi-Function). In summary, the following parameters needs to be set:

  • b0-03 = 6 (To set Speed Reference as the Multi-Functions)
  • b3-02 = 6 (To set DI3 Terminal as Multi-Function Terminal 1)
  • b3-03 = 7 (To set DI4 Terminal as Multi-Function Terminal 2)
  • C1-01 = User Defined Value (to set Reference 1 speed value as a percentage of b0-13)
  • C1-00 = User Defined Value (to set Reference 0 speed value as a percentage of b0-13)
  • C1-02 = User Defined Value (to set Reference 2 speed value as a percentage of b0-13)
  • b0-13 = User Defined Value (max speed default = 50Hz)

3 Speed Selection Switch Setup

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How to Setup a custom Motor Frequency Limit for a Drive

When setting Motor Parameters for a VSD or Solar Drive it includes a Frequency parameter (d0-03 for VSDs and F1-04 for Solar Drives) which is used to specify the Motor Rated Frequency. In the event that there is a requirement to run a motor slower/faster than its rated frequency (default = 50Hz) or limit it to prevent from running slower than a specified minimum target speed (more than the 0Hz default), the following parameters should be set – the first parameter is for VSDs (and Solar Drives with Double Line Keypad Displays) and the second parameter is for Solar Drives (with Single Line Keypad Displays):

  • d0-03 / F1-04 = Rated Frequency of the motor (see motor nameplate)
  • b0-12 / F0-08 = Digital/Preset Frequency Setting (default 50Hz, but cannot be set as more than b0-13/F0-10 if that were modified) – Initial frequency if the frequency source is digital setting or terminal Up/Down.
  • b0-13 / F0-10 = Maximum Frequency (default 50Hz) – the Maximum Frequency that should be allowed for the Motor at any given time (irrespective of what means of input is used to set the Frequency). Minimum =50hz, so only required to set for motors that needs to run at a higher frequency.
  • b0-15 / F0-12 = Frequency Upper Limit (default = 50Hz, but cannot be set as less than b0-17/F0-14 or more than b0-13/F0-10 if that were modified), to prevent the motor from running too fast.
  • b0-17 / F0-14 = Frequency Lower Limit (default = 0Hz, but cannot be set as more than b0-15/F0-12 if that were modified), to prevent the motor from running too slow.

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How to Reset a VSD (Factory Restore)

To Reset a VSD to its factory settings, set A0-09 equal to one of the following values (depending on the requirement):

  • A0-09 = 1(This will restore Default Settings except: Motor Parameters, Frequency Command Resolution / Frequency Unit (b0-11), Fault Records, Accumulative Power-On time (b9-08), Accumulative Running Time (b9-09), and Accumulative Power Consumption (b9-10)).
  • A0-09 = 4 (This will restore Device Records which includes the Fault Records, Accumulative Power-On time (b9-08), Accumulative Running Time (b9-09), and Accumulative Power Consumption (b9-10) which is not reset if A0-09 is set equal to 1).
  • A0-09 = 2 (This will restore all Device Records and all Default Settings – including the Motor Parameters which is not reset if A0-09 is set equal to 1).

 

To Backup or Restore parameter settings, set A0-11 equal to one of the following values (depending on the requirement):

  • A0-11 = 1 (This will make a backup of the Motor Parameters to the Keypad memory which can then be restored again if needed).
  • A0-11 = 2 (This will restore a previous backup of the Motor Parameters which has been made to the Keypad).

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How to Lock a VSD

EMHEATER VSDs offer 2 forms of locking as follows:

  1. Parameter Locking: This method is mostly used to prevent users from accidently modifying any of the parameter settings. This can be done by setting A0-07 = 1 (Not Modifiable). All parameters are then read-only, and to modify any of the parameters, first set A0-07 = 0 (Modifiable).
  2. Inverter Locking: This method is used to prevent users from modifying any of the parameter settings by using a Password as protection. This is done by setting A0-00 equal to a non-zero value (the value/code is the user password). The password takes effect immediately after updating A0-00. When the “PRG” key is pressed, the keypad will display “——”, and the password must be entered to unlock the VSD again. To cancel the password protection function, enter with password and set A0-00 to 0.

* Note that the Inverter Locking method can be used to prevent all use of the VSD after a set runtime. This can be done as follows:

      • Check the VSD present running time: See b9-09 value.
      • Set the lock running time b2-21 = to the runtime limit + the value as noted for b9-09.
      • Set the password using A0-00.

* After reaching the new runtime (b2-21), the VSD will lock itself and the Keypad panel will show Err26. This can then only be resolved using the password to unlock the VSD and changing the runtime limit. To keep the VSD locked without a runtime limit, ensure b2-21 = 0.

 

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How to Delay VSD Restart after Low Current Protection Condition Occurred (Delayed Auto Restart)

When setting up a VSD for Low Current Protection (typically for Dry Run Protection for Water Pumps) a low Current Alarm (Err15) will be triggered when the specific condition occurs (please see detailed FAQ entry Here).

In some cases, however it is required to set the VSD to automatically restart again after a delay period. This requires that the VSD is set up to clear the Error to allow the Auto Restart. This can be done as follows:

Connect terminals DI1 and Common and then set:

  • b0-02 = 1 (terminal control)
  • bb-09 = 20 (unlimited fault auto reset times)
  • bb-11 = 100s (time interval of reset times)
  • b1-07 = 1 (free stop mode)
  • b3-15 = 3000s (DI1 On Delay time to delay the Start-up Process)

Using the above settings will clear the Error after 100 seconds (longest delay possible for clearing the Error) and then allow the VSD to start again after 3000 seconds (longest delay possible for the DI terminal).

The issue with the 3000 second delay on the DI terminal however is that the delay will always be applicable, so the VSD will always only start after 3000 seconds after switching it on. Further to this, in many cases a max of 3000 seconds delay is too short. Another shortcoming is that this method clears all faults, and not just the Low Current Error.

Another way to implement such a delay (instead of delaying the DI terminal) would be to use an external timer which gets triggered by the VSD Low Current Error (and thus ignores all other errors). Once the timer is triggered by the VSD to start, the timer will, after a set delay period, send a signal to the VSD to clear the error (this will clear all errors, but the timer is only triggered to start based on the Low Current Error occurring).

The following example explains how to do this using a Velleman VM206 Universal timer module (with USB interface). Please see the Velleman page for more information here (manual and software can be downloaded from this page as well).

Programming the Velleman VM206 Timer

Firstly, install the Velleman VM206 Software to a PC and then connect the Velleman VM206 to the PC using the supplied USB cable. Once connection between the PC and Timer has been established, the timer settings can be specified and sent to the timer using the “Send” command. For the purpose of this specific example, the Timer Mode = 10 should be used with two Time Sequences as follows (please see image that follows as example):

  • t1: Relay = Off; Time = Set time depending on how long the timer should wait before sending a signal to clear the VSD error state (10 seconds in this example).
  • t2: Relay= On; Time = Set time for how long the timer should send the signal to clear the VSD error state (1 second in this example).
  • Do not select any of the Tick boxes for the 3 options at the bottom

Velleman Programming

Wiring the Velleman VM206 Timer and VSD

To provide power to the timer, connect the VSD 10+V terminal with the Timer + terminal and the VSD GND terminal with the Timer terminal.

To receive the trigger from the VSD when the Low Current Protection Error occurs, connect the VSD Relay terminal TA with the Timer IN1 terminal and the VSD relay terminal TC with the Timer GND terminal.

To send the trigger from the Timer after the set delay time to clear the error on the VSD, connect the VSD terminal DI3 with the Timer COM terminal and the VSD COM terminal with the Timer NO terminal.

VSD Wiring and Parameter Settings

Set the VSD for Low Current Protection (typically for Dry Run Protection for Water Pumps) a low Current Alarm (Err15) will be triggered when the specific condition occurs (please see detailed FAQ entre here).

Set the VSD Relay Output to start the Timer once the Low Current Error occurs as follows:

  • b4-03 = 26 (Zero Current State) – this will switch the relay once the Low Current Error Occur.
  • b4-15 = 1 (Relay 2 Off Delay Time) – this is a slight delay on the switch to prevent conflict with the Dry Run Protection Settings which causes the Relay to immediately switch back again.

Please Note: For Smaller Drives with only one set of Relays (TA-TB-TC), use the TA2-TB2-TC2 Relay parameter settings.

Set the VSD Digital Input to clear its error state once it receives a trigger from the Timer as follows:

  • b3-02 = 37 (Fault Reset) – this will clear the VSD error state.

Then, since the VSD needs to auto start after resetting the error via the timer, the VSD needs to be set up to auto start. To do this, connect DI1 and COM (ideally add a manual switch between DI1 and COM to force switch the VSD off). Set b0-02 = 1 (Terminal Control). This will ensure that as long as the VSD is not in an error state it will run (if a manual switch is connected between DI1 and COM the switch needs to be on).

Wiring Diagram

Delay Timer Wiring

 

For scenarios where this setup might be applicable, please see:

– To set up a EMHEATER VSD with a Pressure Transmitter to provide Constant Water Pressure using the VSD Parameters to set a Fixed Target Pressure, please see the relevant FAQ entry here.

– To set up a EMHEATER VSD with a Pressure Transmitter to provide Constant Water Pressure using an external analog signal (such as a PLC) to modify the target pressure (Variable Target Pressure), please see the relevant FAQ entry Here.

– To set up a EMHEATER VSD with a Pressure Transmitter to provide Constant Water Pressure using an external Multi-Stage Switch to modify the target pressure (Target Pressure Selector), please see the relevant FAQ entry Here.

– To set up a EMHEATER VSD with a Pressure Transmitter for Frequency Control using a PID (Manage Water Outflow), please see the relevant FAQ entry Here.

– To set up a EMHEATER VSD with a Pressure Transmitter for Frequency Control using a PID (Manage Water Inflow), please see the relevant FAQ entry Here.

– To set up a EMHEATER VSD with AI Input Overrun Limit (using a Pressure Transmitter as STOP), please see the relevant FAQ entry Here.

For additional Protection Features, please also see:

– To set up a EMHEATER VSD End of Curve Parameters (PID Signal Loss Protection), please see the relevant FAQ entry Here.

– To set up a EMHEATER VSD Low Current Protection (Dry Run Protection), please see the relevant FAQ entry Here.

 

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How to Change the List of Parameters Displayed on the Keypad

The default parameter display for Double Line Keypads (EM15 VSDs and Solar Drives) can be changed as follows:

Top Keypad Line:

To change the Display for the top line set parameter b9-11 using the desired value (Please see FAQ Entry HERE for values).

Bottom Keypad Line:

To change the Display for the bottom line use the Shift Key (double right arrow) on the Keypad to scroll through all the parameters. The last parameter on display will be kept as the default display. When the frequency inverter is powered on again after a power failure, the parameter as recorded before the power failure will be displayed.

Whether parameters are displayed on the Bottom Keypad Line when scrolling using the Shift Key is determined by setting the following parameters:

Parameters Displayed while in Run Status:

  • b9-02 (Running Status Parameter Set 1)
  • b9-03 (Running Status Parameter Set 2)

These two parameter sets are used to set the 32 monitoring parameters that can be viewed when the VSD is in the running state. If a parameter needs to be displayed during the running status, set the corresponding bit to 1. The displaying sequence is based on the combined list of parameters starting with the b9-02 monitoring parameters up until the last monitoring parameter of b9-03.

Parameters Displayed while in Stop Status:

  • b9-04 (Stop Status Parameter Set)

This parameter set is used to set the 16 monitoring parameters that can be viewed when the VSD is in the stop state. If a parameter needs to be displayed during the stop status, set the corresponding bit to 1.

The above 3 parameters are set in hexadecimal format, and thus needs to be converted using their binary values. Please see options listed below:

Converting from Binary to Hexadecimal Values:

Hexadecimal, also known as hex, uses 16 units, numerical numbers 0-9 and the letters A, B, C, D, E and F. To convert from Binary to Hexadecimal, do the following:

  1. Start at the rightmost digit and break the binary number up into groups of four digits. These are known as nibbles.
  2. Convert each group of four digits into a decimal value.
  3. Convert each decimal value into its hex equivalent.
  4. Put the hex digits together.

Example: To set b9-02 to display parameters 0, 1, 2, 3, 4 and 5, the following Binary values are used -> 0000000000011111. Starting from the right, each group of Binary values can be converted to Decimal and then to Hex as follows:

  • 1111 (Binary) = 15 (Decimal) = F (Hex)
  • 0001 (Binary) = 1 (Decimal) = 1 (Hex)
  • 0000 (Binary) = 0 (Decimal) = 0 (Hex)
  • 0000 (Binary) = 0 (Decimal) = 0 (Hex)

Thus, set b9-02 = 001F

 

Converting from Hexadecimal to Binary Values:

  1. Split the Hex number into individual values.
  2. Convert each Hex value into its Decimal equivalent.
  3. Convert each Decimal digit into Binary (making sure to write four digits for each value).
  4. Combine all four digits to make one binary number.

Example: Convert Hex FC to Binary:

  • F = decimal 15
  • C = decimal 12
  • 15 = binary 1111
  • 12 = binary 1100

Result – 11111100

 

* Excel Document to specify display parameters and generate the relevant HEX value available here.

* Note that the following parameters listed in the images are not relevant: Linear Speed, Count Value, Length Value and Received. Also note that the Load Speed is the same as U0-14.

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How to Change the Default Keypad Parameter Display Lines for Double Line Keypads

The default parameter display for Double Line Keypads (EM15 VSDs and Solar Drives) can be changed as follows:

Bottom Keypad Line:

To change the Display for the bottom line use the Shift Key (double right arrow) on the keypad to scroll through all the running parameters. The last parameter on display will be kept as the default display (Please see FAQ Entry HERE for more details on setting this up). When selecting the PRG Key (Programme), this keypad line will allow for scrolling through all the various VSD setting parameters (in order to edit any of the required parameters). The setting parameters list can however also be changed by updating the MF-K (Multi-Function) key function (which by default is set to Forward JOG when pressing and holding the key). To change this, set b9-01 = 5 (Function Parameters) and A0-06 =1 (To allow displaying the Function Parameters). After updating these, whenever the PRG key is pressed, the bottom keypad line will offer three options to select from using the MF-K button as follows:

  • BASE: Shows all function parameters
  • USER: Shows only the most common user parameters (16 Parameters as follows: b0-01~b0-03; b0-07; b0-08; b0-21; b0-22; b3-00; b3-01; b4-00~b4-02; b5-04; b5-07; b6-00; b6-01)
  • C: Shows modified parameters only – shows all parameters which does not equal the default value used by the software

 

Top Keypad Line:

To change the Display for the top line set parameter b9-11 using the desired value (see list of options below):

  • U0-00 Running frequency
  • U0-01 Setting frequency
  • U0-02 DC Bus voltage
  • U0-03 Output voltage
  • U0-04 Output current
  • U0-05 Output power
  • U0-06 Output torque
  • U0-07 DI state
  • U0-08 DO state
  • U0-09 AI1 voltage
  • U0-10 AI2 voltage
  • U0-11 AI3 voltage
  • U0-14 Load speed display
  • U0-15 PID setting
  • U0-16 PID feedback
  • U0-17 PLC stage
  • U0-18 Input pulse frequency
  • U0-19 Feedback speed, unit:0.01Hz
  • U0-20 Remaining running time
  • U0-21 AI1 voltage before correction
  • U0-22 AI2 voltage before correction
  • U0-23 AI3 voltage before correction
  • U0-24 Linear speed
  • U0-26 Present power-on time
  • U0-27 Present running time
  • U0-28 Actual feedback speed
  • U0-29 Encoder feedback speed
  • U0-30 Main frequency X
  • U0-31 Auxiliary frequency Y
  • U0-32 Viewing any register address value
  • U0-34 Motor temperature
  • U0-35 Target torque
  • U0-37 Power factor angle
  • U0-38 ABZ position
  • U0-39 Target voltage of V/F separation
  • U0-40 Output voltage of V/F separation
  • U0-41 DI input state visual display
  • U0-42 DO output state visual display
  • U0-43 DI function state visual display 1
  • U0-44 DO function state visual display 2
  • U0-45 Fault information
  • U0-46 Phase Z signal counting
  • U0-47 Present setting frequency (%)
  • U0-48 Present running frequency (%)
  • U0-49 Frequency inverter running state
  • U0-50 Sent value of point-point communication
  • U0-51 Received value of point-point communication

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How to Autotune a VSD

To autotune a VSD for a specific motor:

  • First make sure that all Motor Parameters has been set (d0-00 up to d0-04) then:
  • Set d0-30 = 3 and press ENTER
  • Press RUN to start the autotuning process.

The VSD and Motor will go through a short working process and stop by itself, after which the d0-05 up to d0-09 parameters would have been optimised.

d0-05: Stator resistance (asynchronous motor)
d0-06: Rotor resistance (asynchronous motor)
d0-07: Leakage inductive reactance (asynchronous motor)
d0-08: Mutual inductive reactance (asynchronous motor)
d0-09: No-load current (asynchronous motor)

PLEASE NOTE: Autotuning cannot be done when the drive is in Terminal Control or Remote Control Mode (needs to be in keypad Control mode: b0-02=0). After setting the Autotune Parameter the keypad will display “TUNE”, when this is displayed press the RUN button and let the drive complete the autotuning process (~30 seconds) after which the drive can be used.

*When using a single VSD to run more than one motor, do not perform autotuning.

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Drive Maintenance (General Inspections and Repairs)

Improper Drive usage (installation and/or operation) and lack of maintenance (including failure to adjust based on changes in operating conditions) could shorten the service life of a Drive and/or cause Drive failure or faults. The impact of temperature, humidity, dust, and vibration could lead to poor heat dissipation and component aging of Drives (resulting in potential failure or reducing the service life of the Drive). This makes general inspections and maintenance particularly important (it is recommended that periodic inspections should be conducted at least once a year). Also ensure the correct size Drive is selected for the operation/application – please details HERE.

Before inspecting a Drive, ensure the power supply is cut off (ensure the power indicator of the Drive is off). Wait for approximately 15mins to ensure internal capacitors are discharged.

 

GENERAL INSPECTIONS and VERIFICATIONS

Take note of the Temperature and Humidity of the surrounding environment. Please see details regarding Drive Derating due to Temperature/Altitude/Humidity HERE. Excessive temperatures could cause the Drive to overheat (typically cause an Error alarm). In severe cases, it could damage the Drive’s power components and even cause a short circuit. Inspect for any possible moisture or dirt/dust evident inside the Drive, especially on the circuitry (which could cause short circuits). Excessive humidity could also cause a short circuit inside the Drive.

Check that all components are clean and for any signs of corrosion. If it’s evident that there is a lot of dust or moist inside the Drive itself, open the Drive and clean it.

Inspect all connections and ensure there aren’t any loose screws, bolts, or plug-in’s, also ensure that none of the conductors or insulators are corroded (if necessary, clean by wiping them off with alcohol). Also check for any signs of arcing on any of the component terminals. Ensure that all wiring and contactors/breakers are according to specification – please details HERE.

Also ensure that Shielded/Screened cable (cable with a common conductive outer layer for electromagnetic shielding) is used when connecting a Drive with any external instrumentation (such as PLC’s, Transmitters, etc.).

When the Drive is running, listen for any abnormal sounds or vibrations from the Drive and Motor. When the Drive is running, ensure the built-in Drive cooling fans are working properly (ensure there are adequate air flow and listen for any abnormal sounds or vibrations). Remove the Drive cooling fan/s if necessary and remove any dust deposits that might be present.

Drives (with IP20 rating) are generally installed in cabinets/enclosures/panels, which should also include adequate ventilation and cooling for the Drive. Please see Drive Cooling/Panel Fan Selection details HERE. Also ensure these fans operate smoothly (ensure there are adequate air flow and listen for any abnormal sounds). Ensure that the fans rotate smoothly, rotates in the correct direction (extraction fans should extract hot air out of the enclosure and not suck air in) and that there are no dust or obstructions in the air inlets. Clean the ventilation ducts and fans if necessary and remove any dust deposits that might be present (also remove dust from filters).

Other external aspects to inspect includes all other Drive peripherals that might be installed such as Reactors/Chokes, Filters, Brake Units/Resistors, etc. Ensure none of these components are overheating (could possibly see or smell burning/overheating) or make any abnormal noises. Also check the electric motor for possible issues.

 

GENERAL COMPONENT REPLACEMENTS

Drives are composed of various components, for some of these the lifetimes will gradually reduce as they age due to long-term usage, which could ultimately cause Drive faults and/or failure. The most vulnerable parts of Drives include the Cooling Fans and DC Bus Capacitors. The service lifetimes of these components are closely related to and dependant on the impact of the environment, usage conditions and regular maintenance, but below are general indications of their typical lifetimes:

  • Cooling Fan: 3 ~ 4 Years / 30 000 ~ 70 000 Operating Hrs
  • DC Bus Capacitor (Electrolytic Capacitor): 5 ~ 6 Years

To ensure the long-term normal operation of the Drives, these components should be replaced as required.

Cooling Fans

The power module of the Drive is the component that generates the most heat. The heat generated by continuous operation must be discharged in time using Cooling Fans. Possible damage of a Cooling Fan includes bearing wear and blade aging, please check for any cracks in the fan blade and any abnormal vibration and sounds during the operation of the Cooling Fan. Please pay attention when replacing a Cooling Fan to ensure it is the same specification as the original Cooling Fan (AC/DC, Voltage, Amps, CFM, RPM etc.) and to connect the wiring correctly. A good indicator of an already failed/damaged Cooling Fan would be when a Drive trips with Error 14 (IGBT Module Overheat).

DC Bus Capacitors

The DC Bus Capacitors’ (Intermediate DC loop filter capacitors / Electrolytic capacitors) main function is to smooth the DC voltage and absorb the low frequency harmonics in the DC circuit. The heat generated by its continuous operation plus the heat generated by the Drive itself will accelerate the drying up of its electrolyte (electrolyte aging). Other impacts on the Capacitor lifetime include poor quality of the input power supply, high external temperatures, and frequent changes in load. This directly affects capacity and, generally, if the capacity is reduced by more than 20%, the Capacitors should be replaced. Test Capacitors using a Multimeter set to Capacitance testing and connect the red and black probe to each connection point of the Capacitor. Readings should align with the Capacitor technical specifications as indicated on the Capacitor itself. A good visual indicator of an already failed/damaged Capacitor would be when there are signs of leakage of the Capacitor Liquid or if the Capacitor Safety Valve is protruding.

 

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Drive Fault Codes and Troubleshooting

Fault Codes, Causes and Solutions

EM15 Inverters (VSDs and Solar Drives) have 35 types of warning/protection functions. In case of a fault the protection function gets invoked and the inverter will stop the output, invoke the faulty relay contact, and the fault code will be displayed on the keypad display panel of the inverter.

* Parameter codes listed below are formatted in colour for VSDs and Solar Drives (Double Line Keypad Display Models) and for Solar Drives (Single Line Keypad Display Models).

Fault Codes 1

Fault Codes 2

Fault Codes 3

Troubleshooting Other Common Faults, Causes and Solution

* Parameter codes listed below are formatted in colour for VSDs and Solar Drives (Double Line Keypad Display Models) and for Solar Drives (Single Line Keypad Display Models).

Common Faults

 

Solar Drive Alarm Codes

* A- Alarm Codes are relevant to Solar Drive models with Double-Line Display Keypads and Ar. Alarm Codes are relevant to Solar Drives models with Single-Line Display Keypad.

Solar Drive Alarm Codes

 

Drive Error Log

When troubleshooting a fault, please analyse the below list of parameter values from the error log which correlates with the specific related fault (latest 3 faults). This data could provide valuable information in narrowing down the exact problem area, possible cause as well as corrective actions required to resolve the issue.

* Parameter codes listed below are formatted in colour for VSDs and Solar Drives (Double Line Keypad Display Models) and for Solar Drives (Single Line Keypad Display Models).

Error Log

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Drive Dimensions and Panel Spacing Requirements

PLEASE NOTE: Please see Drive Derating Specifications, VSD Sizing/Selection and Solar Drive Sizing/Selection for appropriate power selection, Cooling/Panel Fan Selection to ensure adequate ventilation as well as Drive Wiring and MCCB/Contactor Selection.

Drive Dimensions

Please see the below images listing the dimensions (in mm) for the various Drives according to model and size:

Drive Dimensions

Drive Dimensions - Images

PLEASE NOTE:

  • In some instances Small Frame units can also be manufactured as Medium Frame units – please confirm correct frame size.
  • Pricing for Large Wall Mounted and Large Floor Standing units vary (Floor Standing Units are more expensive). Standard pricing is for Large Wall Mounted units, if Large Floor Standing units are required, please specifically request as such.
  • Images indicate Double Line Display Keypads, for Solar Drives the Keypads only include a Single Line Display.

 

Installation Direction and Spacing

In order to protect the service life of Drives and reduce impact on performance, please ensure correct installation direction and spacing as follows:

VSD Installation Direction and Spacing

PLEASE NOTE:

  • Install the Drive vertically to dissipate heat upwards. If several Drives are installed in one cabinet, please install them side by side, do not to install above each other.
  • Images indicate Double Line Display Keypads, for Solar Drives the Keypads only include a Single Line Display.
  • When installing Peripherals (Chokes/Reactors, SineWave Filters or EMC/EMI Filters), also use same spacing requirements as above for the peripherals (Please also see Peripherals Wiring).

 

External Keypad Tray Installation

Drive keypads can be removed and installed into panel doors as illustrated below:

External Keypad Installation Dimensions

 

PLEASE NOTE:

  • Small Keypads (Small Frame Drives) allows for Ribbon Extension Cables only and the keypad can be installed directly into a panel door (additional Keypad Frame not required).
  • Large Keypads (Medium and Large Frame Drives) allows for Ribbon and Ethernet Extension Cables and the keypad has to be fitted using a separate Keypad Frame installed into the panel door.
  • Images indicate Double Line Display Keypads, for Solar Drives the Keypads only include a Single Line Display.
  • Small Frame Drives have less Terminals on the Control Board allowing for less Digital/Analog/Relay Inputs/Outputs. For applications where more terminals are required, Medium Frame units are required, please specifically request as such.
  • Small Frame Solar Drives do not allow for Solar Assist Mode (using both PV and AC Power supply simultaneously) since the Small Frame Units do not have a P- terminal. For applications where Solar Assist Mode (see Understanding Solar Assist Mode) is required, Medium Frame units are required, please specifically request as such.

 

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Basic Drive Testing and Troubleshooting

Guidelines for Basic Drive Testing and Troubleshooting

As a first step before doing any tests, please refer to some of the general inspection steps as noted in the Drive Maintenance (General Inspections and Repairs) FAQ page Here.

Static Tests (Dry Tests)

To do the static tests, first make sure the power supply to the drive is disconnected (no power on drive – doing these tests with power on will damage the Multimeter). Set the Multimeter to Diode Voltage test mode as follows:

Multimeter

Rectifier Circuit

To test the incoming (power supply circuit), connect the Black Probe of the Multimeter to the P+ terminal of the drive and the Red Probe to each of the R, S and T terminals, each time measuring the voltage. After that, connect the Red Probe of the Multimeter to the P- terminal of the drive and the Black Probe to each of the R, S and T terminals, each time measuring the voltage.

* Please note, for small drive units without a P- terminal the drive needs to be opened to do this test – please see details at the end of the IGBT Circuit test section.

Results: Expected values should be approximately ~0.4V. The results for different kW drives will differ, but the 6 measurements should be very similar (for drives larger than 160kW not lower than 0.2 and for drives smaller than 160kw not lower than 0.3). If any of the measurements tests as Open Loop or values that differ greatly from the expected values noted above, it is most likely that the Rectifier has been damaged. In such an event, please contact us for support.

 

IGBT Circuit

To test the outgoing (power output circuit), connect the Black Probe of the Multimeter to the P+ terminal of the drive and the Red Probe to each of the U, V and W terminals, each time measuring the voltage. After that, connect the Red Probe of the Multimeter to the P– terminal of the drive and the Black Probe to each of the U, V and W terminals, each time measuring the voltage.

* Please note, for small drive units without a P- terminal the drive needs to be opened to do this test – please see details later in this section.

Results: Expected values should be approximately ~0.4V. The results for different kW drives will differ, but the 6 measurements should be very similar (for drives larger than 160kW not lower than 0.2 and for drives smaller than 160kw not lower than 0.3). If any of the measurements tests as Open Loop or values that differ greatly from the expected values noted above, it is most likely that the IGBT has been damaged. In such an event, please contact us for support.

To download the Excel test file for printing and noting the measurements, please download the IGBT and Rectifier Tests Excel file Here.

 

Small Drive Testing (without P- Terminal)

Small drive units without a P- terminal (some drives up to 2.2kW) needs to be opened to access the Power Board to complete the above tests. For all tests above where a P- terminal is used for testing, please use the terminal as indicated in the image below as the P- terminal.

Power Board

Dynamic Tests (Wet Tests)

If the Static Test results are normal, the Dynamic Tests can be performed (power-on tests). The following points must be noted before and after power-up:

Before Powering On

Confirm that the input voltage is correct and check whether the connection ports of the drive are correctly connected and whether any of the connections are loose (abnormal connections may sometimes cause the drive to malfunction).

After Powering On

Check that the DC Bus Voltage is normal (should be ~ 1.414 x the AC Power Supply Voltage) – can be done by measuring the DC Voltage between Terminals P+ and P- and also by checking the DC Bus Voltage as displayed on the drive keypad (use the Shift Key on the keypad to scroll through the different display values: Frequency, Amps, DC Bus Voltage and Output Voltage). With 30kW and larger drives one should typically hear the DC Contactor pulling in.

If the DC Bus Voltage is normal and the Operating Panel (Keypad) does not work (no display) or flashes regularly or displays E.Pan, it could be caused by a faulty Keypad Socket or damaged Keypad. Firstly, remove the Keypad and check whether the LED indicator on the Control Board is on after the drive is powered on. If not (first switch off all power supply and wait 15mins before doing this), disconnect and connect the cable between the Control Board and Power Board (or Drive Board for units larger than 22kW) to ensure they are connected properly. If the issue persists (after power on again), please contact us for support (could be damaged Drive/Power Board). If the LED indicator does go on, check that the pins of the Keypad Socket on the Control Board are in good working condition. If possible, replace the Keypad to confirm whether it’s a faulty Keypad. If the Keypad seems to be in working condition, measure the DC Voltage on the Control Board between the +24V and COM Terminals to confirm a ~24V reading is obtained – if not, please contact us for support (could be damaged Control Board).

Please note, for an E.Pan error display on a Solar Drive – if this error is being displayed momentarily, this could be due to the DC Bus Voltage dropping below 100V – with Solar Drives this could typically happen when the Dormancy Voltage (Sleep) is set very low, creating a scenario where the drive is still busy decelerating before reaching the Dormancy Voltage (which should normally trigger Alarm Ar.01) while the DC Bus Voltage already dropped below 100V, which would then cause the communication error being displayed on the keypad. This could also be caused by a poor connection within the PV Array supplying the drive with power (sudden voltage drop occurs when a load is added).

If the Operating Panel (Keypad) displays a fault (Error Code) after powering on, please look up the Fault Code from the Fault Codes and Descriptions log (listing possible reasons/causes and solutions) Here.

For additional Fault Information it’s also very helpful to review the Error Log (last 3 errors and related information stored at the time of the fault). To download the Excel Error Log file for printing and noting the info, please download the Excel Error Log File Here (when contacting us for support it might be easier to simply take a video of the error log values by entering through all the parameters and sending us the video).

If all the above is in order, check whether the motor parameters are correct and whether any abnormal parameter settings can be identified – if so, doing a factory reset could be a good idea (for VSDs set A0-09=1 and for Solar Drives (Single-Line Keypad Display models) set FP-01=1).

Start the Drive

Next, start the drive under no-load (no motor connection). If the drive immediately trips when attempting to start it, it could be due to a faulty cooling Fan (or fan short circuit). Firstly, try and set the fans to run during power on (instead of only during running) – on a VSD, set b2-23=1, on a Solar Drive (Single-Line Keypad Display models), set F8-48=1. If the drive then trips immediately after powering it on, this typically indicates a faulty fan. To isolate the faulty fan the fans can be disconnected one at a time (first switch off all power supply and wait 15mins before doing this) to identify the specific fan causing the trip. If identified, please replace the fan, otherwise please contact us for support.

If the drive starts up, test the U, V, W output voltages. If there is a phase loss, phase unbalance, etc., the Drive/Power Board is most likely faulty. In such an event, please contact us for support.

If the output voltage is normal (no phase loss, phase unbalance), a load test can be done (with motor connected – when testing, it is best to test at full load). Check whether the current displayed on the Keypad is too high or has large variations, similarly, also check the output voltage as displayed on the keypad. After this, also test whether the output voltage and current are balanced on the U, V and W output terminals.

If none of the above steps helped identify and/or resolve the issue, please contact us for support.

Contacting us for Support

Please note, when contacting us for support, please try and provide as much information as possible, such as:

  • Photo of the Drive Nameplate.
  • Photo of the Motor Nameplate.
  • Photo’s/Video’s showing the installation and setup.
  • Details regarding the specific application and configuration/setup used.
  • Details regarding the undesired/unexpected behaviour/observations (ideally with photo/video evidence showing the occurrence).
  • Error Log information as obtained from the drive – please download the Excel Error Log File Here (it might be easier to simply take a video of the error log values by entering through all the parameters and sending us the video).

 

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Solar Drives

Understanding Solar Drive Sizing (kW Selection)

Solar Drive Sizing/Selection: Please see below guidelines and contact us for verification if necessary:

  • For Hammer and Impact Crushers, consider using a Soft Starter instead of a Solar Drive. Solar Drives are not recommended since the current tend to be very unstable during normal operation, which makes the Solar Drives prone to go into overload / overcurrent protection. If the feed to the Crusher is controllable (when the current is large, the feed speed should be automatically reduced), one can consider using a Solar Drive, if it is not controllable, a Soft Starter is recommended. Some field conditions do however require the use of a Solar Drive to reduce the impact of the starting current and some users therefor insist on using a Solar Drive (instead of Soft Starter), and mostly use it without any problem (1/10 report overload), but this is then done using the correct design to ensure the feed is controlled.
  • For the SP1S Series, note that some of the Single-Phase Motors have very high Amp ratings, so make sure the Amp rating of the Motor is less than that of the selected Solar Drive, otherwise select a larger kW Solar Drive.
  • Select Solar Drive (kW) of two sizes larger than the Motor (kW) for:
    • Heavy/High Duty (Industrial) Applications (high torque requirement at start-up, e.g., Crusher, Ball Mill, Compressor with 6 Poles or more).
  • Select a Solar Drive (kW) size larger than the Motor (kW) for:
    • General Duty Motors with 6 Poles or more (if torque is high).
    • Low Duty (low torque requirement at start-up, e.g., Fan, Centrifugal Pump) Motors with 8 Poles or more.
    • Low Efficiency Motors (e.g., submersible borehole pumps).
    • For use in areas with altitude over 2000m or ambient temperatures above 40 degrees Celsius (preferably use forced cooling, ambient temperature must always be less than 50 degrees). Please Derating Specifications for more info as well as Cooling/Panel Fan Selection specifications.

For Solar Array Sizing, please see entry here.

Please Note:

  • Up to 22kW models = Plastic Housing; 30kW+ models = Metal
  • All models include RS485 terminals (on Control Board) and integrated IGBT
  • Prices for spares available on request only (includes items such as keypad, control card, power card, IGBT model, fan, fan board, capacitor, rectifier).
  • Please refer to each specific model’s User Manual for important details regarding product Installation, Setup, Safety Information, Precautions and Maintenance
  • Use the Solar Drive to Start and Stop the Motor, do not disconnect the supply from the Solar Drive to the Motor while it is running. Also do not disconnect the power supply to the Solar Drive while it is running the Motor.
  • Do not use a Solar Drive to run more than 2 motors simultaneously (For SP1 and SP1S Series Solar Drives, do not use more than one motor per Solar Drive).
  • Multiple Solar Drives can be connected to a single PV Array, but in the event that the Solar Drives are set up to automatically start and stop based on available sunlight, adjust the Sleep and Wake Up Voltages of the various Solar Drives so that they don’t Start and Stop at the exact same time (cannot combine SP3 Solar Drives with SP1 or SP1S Solar Drives using the same Array due to the variance in Array Voltage requirements).
  • If you want to use the Solar Drive with AC input as well (Solar Assist Mode), you also need to install Diodes to protect the PV Array (some of the smaller kW ranges only allow for a single power supply though). Please see the Solar Assist Mode FAQ page Entry for more details regarding PV Array Design requirements relating to Solar Assist Mode applications.
  • Note that if the cable length between the Solar Drive and Motor is more than 50m, we would also recommend that you install an Output Choke/Reactor, for cables more than 150m we recommend installing a SineWave Filter (instead of the Output Choke/Reactor).
  • Please use Copper power cables between the Solar Drive and Motor rather than Aluminium cables (impedance of Aluminium cables are higher and cause more harmonics).
  • Regarding the SP1S Series, note that Single-Phase Motors generally do not perform well when used at slow speeds (not less than 25Hz), especially for applications where the Motor is put under strain (high load at slow speed is a problem for the Motors – the Solar Drive can handle it.
  • For installations in enclosures, device keypads can be removed and installed into enclosure doors using additional keypad frames and extension cables.
  • Please see the VSD and Solar Drive Peripherals section of the VSD Manual for info on additional items that might be required for installation. Also see the applicable peripheral device manuals regarding information on these items.

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Understanding Solar Drive PV Array Sizing

EMHEATER offers 3 different Solar Drive (Solar VSD) models as follows:

    • SP1S: Solar DC 300-380V (or Single-Phase AC ~220V) Input and Single-Phase (~220V) AC Output
    • SP1: Solar DC 300-380V (or Single-Phase AC ~220V) Input and 3-Phase (~220V) AC Output
    • SP3: Solar DC 450-650V (or 3-Phase AC ~380V) Input and 3-Phase (~380V) AC Output

For Solar Drive Sizing/Selection, please see below guidelines and contact us for verification if necessary:

    • For Hammer and Impact Crushers, consider using a Soft Starter instead of a Solar Drive.
    • For the SP1S Series, note that some of the Single-Phase Motors have very high Amp ratings, so make sure the Amp rating of the Motor is less than that of the selected Solar Drive, otherwise select a larger kW Solar Drive.
    • Select Solar Drive (kW) of two sizes larger than the Motor (kW) for:
      • Heavy/High Duty (Industrial) Applications (high torque requirement at start-up, e.g., Crusher, Ball Mill, Compressor with 6 Poles or more).
    • Select a Solar Drive (kW) size larger than the Motor (kW) for:
      • General Duty Motors with 6 Poles or more (if torque is high).
      • Low Duty (low torque requirement at start-up, e.g., Fan, Centrifugal Pump) Motors with 8 Poles or more.
      • Low Efficiency Motors (e.g., submersible borehole pumps).
      • For use in areas with altitude over 2000m or ambient temperatures above 40 degrees Celsius (preferably use forced cooling, ambient temperature must always be less than 50 degrees).

For Solar Array Sizing/Design, there are 2 critical aspects to consider during the design process:

1. Minimum PV Array Voltage

This is dependent on Solar Drive Series used and has minimum start-up voltage requirements, maximum voltages allowed and suggested voltage ranges for optimal performance. Voltages for each series as follows:

    • SP1S
      • Minimum Start-up Voltage: 120Voc
      • Maximum Allowed Voltage: 400Voc
      • Ideal Voltage Range: 250Voc – 380Voc (300–380 if possible)
    • SP1
      • Minimum Start-up Voltage: 120Voc
      • Maximum Allowed Voltage: 400Voc
      • Ideal Voltage Range: 250Voc – 380Voc (300–380 if possible)
    • SP3
      • Minimum Start-up Voltage: 280Voc
      • Maximum Allowed Voltage: 750Voc (above 800Voc will cause damage to drive components)
      • Ideal Voltage Range: 350Voc – 650Voc (450–650 if possible)

* Please note that Solar Panel Voc ratings are based on specific test conditions and can provide higher Voltage outputs under ideal conditions, which would increase the overall Array Voltage output. Ensure that the design allows for this and that it will never exceed 800Voc (otherwise the Solar Drive components will be damaged).

2. Minimum PV Array Power (kW)

The total PV Array kW requirement is dependent on the Solar Drive kW rating – should be at least 1.3 x the Solar Drive kW rating. This should however ideally be more than that depending on the required working hours per day or other aspects such as minimum pressure required for pumping solutions etc. This is to ensure the system can provide enough working hours in the day which will fluctuate based on the PV Array output during different seasons of the year and at different hours and conditions of each day. Most installers prefer a ratio of a PV Array kW size of 2 x that of the Solar Drive kW rating. For the smaller drives (0.75kW up to 2.2kW) it could be better to use High Voltage panels to reduce the number of required panels.

Solar Drive PV Array Design Tool

To assist with the calculations based on the specifications of the selected EMHEATER Solar DriveMotor and PV Panels, the following Excel calculator can be used to simplify the design process: Excel Calculator (the min/max voltage requirements varies for the SP1/SP1S and SP3 models – for all models the PV Array kW should be at least 1.3 times the motor kW).

Please Note (Solar Drives):

  • Multiple Solar Drives can be connected to a single PV Array, but in the event that the Solar Drives are set up to automatically start and stop based on available sunlight, adjust the Sleep and Wake Up Voltages of the various Solar Drives so that they don’t Start and Stop at the exact same time (cannot combine SP3 Solar Drives with SP1 or SP1S Solar Drives using the same Array due to the variance in Array Voltage requirements).
  • If you want to use the Solar Drive with AC input as well (Solar Assist Mode), you also need to install Diodes to protect the PV array (some of the smaller kW ranges only allow for a single power supply though). Please see the Solar Assist Mode FAQ page Entry for more details regarding PV Array Design requirements relating to Solar Assist Mode applications.
  • Note that if the cable length between the Solar Drive and motor is more than 50m, we would also recommend that you install an Output Choke/Reactor, for cables more than 150m we recommend installing a SineWave Filter (instead of the Output Choke/Reactor).
  • Please use Copper power cables between the Solar Drive and Motor rather than Aluminium cables (impedance of Aluminium cables are higher and cause more harmonics).
  • Use the Solar Drive to Start and Stop the motor, do not disconnect the supply from the Solar Drive to the motor while it is running. Also do not disconnect the power supply to the Solar Drive while it is running the motor.
  • When using any of the Relays, note that for Smaller Drives with only one set of Relays (TA-TB-TC), use the TA2-TB2-TC2 Relay parameter settings.

 

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Understanding Solar Assist Mode

EMHEATER Solar Drives allow for simultaneous connection to an AC and DC Power Supply, referred to as Solar Assist Mode. In such a scenario it is important to also install Diodes (Photovoltaic Anti-Reverse Diodes with Diode Voltage = 1600V and Amp Rating = 5 x Solar Drive Amp Rating) on the two DC Cables connecting to the Solar Drive to protect the PV Array from the AC Power Supply. Please also note that some of the smaller kW range Solar Drives only allow for a single power supply (only have one set of terminals) and therefore do not support Solar Assist mode (please confirm beforehand).

Solar Assist Mode Working Principle:

When using Solar Assist Mode (both AC and DC Supply connected at the same time), the Solar Drive will always run the motor at the max speed (and not slow the motor down if the DC Supply is inadequate – as it would do when using a DC Supply only). In Solar Assist Mode, if the DC Supply (PV Array) power is not enough to run the motor at the max speed, the Solar Drive will draw the required additional Amps from the AC Supply. It’s very important to note that the drive will prioritise the DC Supply (PV Array) as long as the PV Array Voc at the time is more than the Rectified AC Supply Voltage (Vac x 1.414), otherwise it will immediately switch over to the AC Supply only. For this reason it is thus important to rather design the PV Array with a Voc value as high as possibly allowed to ensure longer/better DC Supply (PV Array) utilisation (please see the PV Array Design FAQ page Entry for more details regarding PV Array Design requirements).

Switching Examples (switching to AC Power alone due to DC Power Supply Voc being lower than the Rectified AC Power Supply Voltage):

  • For SP1/S Series Solar Drives the switching to AC Power alone (no DC Supply utilisation) will occur when the DC Supply Voltage (Voc) is less than 220V*1.414 = 311V (if the AC Supply is 240V it will be at 339 Voc).
  • For SP3 Series Solar Drives the switching to AC Power alone (no DC Supply utilisation) will occur when the DC Supply Voltage (Voc) is less than 380V*1.414 = 537V (if the AC Supply is 415V it will be at 586 Voc).

Wiring Diagram:

Solar Drive Wiring (AC+DC and Diodes)

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Understanding Single-Phase Motor Wiring and Drive Setup

WORKING PRINCIPLES OF A SINGLE-PHASE MOTOR:

Single-Phase Motor Wiring

  1. A Single-Phase Motor generally has a Main Winding (U1/U2), Auxiliary Winding (Z1/Z2), Running Capacitor, Starting Capacitor and Centrifugal Switch.
  2. If the Single-Phase (220VAC) Motor direction needs to be reversed, it requires swopping the U1 and U2 (or Z1/Z2) wires.
  3. The Starting Capacitor value is generally larger than the Running Capacitor, which can increase the starting torque. The Starting Capacitor will be disconnected through the Centrifugal Switch when the mechanical speed reaches a certain value. Some light-load Single-Phase Motors do not have a Starting Capacitor.

DRIVE WIRING:

  1. Input: AC 220V is connected to any two phases of R, S, and T of the Drive (preferably R and T).
  2. Output: The output is connected according to the specific mode selection as described below.

SINGLE-PHASE MOTOR WIRING AND DRIVE SETUP:

VSDs have 2 modes for driving a Single-Phase Motor:

  1. Single-Phase Mode (FE-03=1): The Motor needs to be connected to the Drive output terminals U and V (which generally connects to the main winding of the motor U1/U2) – this is similar to using the Single-Phase Motor connected to a normal Single-Phase power supply. In this mode, forward and reverse rotation of the motor cannot be controlled by the Drive (Motor wiring needs to be reversed to reverse the rotation). The wiring in this mode must be connected to the U and V terminals of the Drive, otherwise the display current is abnormal/incorrect. If the motor has a Starting Capacitor, the Starting Capacitor can be removed, which can reduce the starting current and increase the speed range.
  2. Three-Phase Mode (FE-03=2): Similar to a Three-Phase Asynchronous Motor, the main windings of the Single-Phase Motor (generally U1/U2) needs to be connected to the Drive output terminals U and V, and the secondary winding of the motor (generally Z1/Z2) is connected to the W output terminal of the Drive. This mode requires the removal of all capacitors, which allows for full-range speed control and for a high starting torque, but lower high-speed torque. This mode allows for forward and reverse rotation of the Motor via the Drive controls.

For both modes, set the rated parameters of the motor (rated voltage, rated frequency, rated current). Low-frequency torque can be increased by modifying the VF curve or increasing the torque boost.

Please Note: The Reverse function (when using Three-Phase Mode) is only possible while PV Mode is switched off. This can be changed momentarily (when using the drive in PV mode) as described in the FAQ entry HERE.

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Understanding Drive Wiring and MCCB/Contactor Selection

Wiring and MCCB/Contactor Selection

Please see the below tables for specifications for MCCB/Contactor and Wiring selections for the various Variable Speed Drive and Solar Drive models and sizes (please use Copper Cable):

G1 Wiring and Breakers

G13 Wiring and Breakers

G3 Wiring and Breakers

 

For Solar Drives:

  • For SP1 Series use the same specs as for the G1 Series in the table above (for the AC cabling)
  • For SP3 Series use the same specs as for the G3 Series in the table above (for the AC cabling)
  • For DC Cables use the specs of the Main Circuit Supply Cable from that of a larger sized Drive

 

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Understanding Drive Cooling/Panel Fan Selection

Axial Flow Fan Selection

For Soft Starter Cooling/Panel Fan Selection, please see the relevant FAQ page HERE.

 

The following 3 tables lists all the available axial flow fans and their respective specifications:

220V AC Fans

380V 3-Phase AC Fans

DC Fans

To determine the required cooling (CFM) for a specific panel, use the VSD kW * 5.364 to calculate the required CFM value and select the appropriate fan/s accordingly. Please see table below showing the appropriate fan/s selection for each specific kW option VSD.

 

Fan Selection

Please note that Single-Phase 380V Fans are also available (not included in design options in above tables). Please note that these fans can also be used with a Single-Phase 230V supply, with adjusted CFM and RPM values indicated in brackets below:

380V Single-Phase AC Fans

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Understanding Derating Specifications

Temperature and altitude derating specifications outline the maximum operating temperature and altitude at which a VSD/Soft Starter can function safely and efficiently.

Generally, as the ambient temperature increases, the unit’s output power must be reduced to prevent damage or failure, this reduction is known as “derating”. It is important to consult the manufacturer’s documentation for the specific unit in question to understand its temperature derating factor. Similarly, as altitude increases, the air density decreases which can affect the cooling of the unit, thus it may need to be de-rated, or its output power reduced, to prevent damage or failure.

EMHEATER Environmental requirements state that units should be de-rated based on Ambient Temperature and Altitude. These are specified as follows:

  • Altitude: Lower than 1000m
  • Ambient Temperature: -10°C~ +40°C (de-rated if the ambient temperature is between 40°C and 50°C)

For conditions where the Altitude or Ambient Temperature exceeds the abovementioned specifications, the following applies:

  • Altitude: For every 1000m above the original 1000m limit, please select a kW option larger than normal.
  • Ambient Temperature: For ambient temperature between 40°C and 50°C, please select a kW option larger than normal – This is to accommodate for the rise in resistance under higher temperatures and to protect sensitive electronics from being over-stressed. Using units at Ambient Temperatures above 50 degrees is not advised. For all circumstances with Ambient Temperatures above 40 degrees, please consider making use of forced cooling to reduce the temperature.

As a general (conservative) rule of thumb AC Motors/VSDs/Soft Starters are all rated for up to 1000m (~3300 feet) in altitude and 40 degrees Celsius (and is not rated at all for operation above 50°) and both generally de-rate at the same rate. Both then de-rate at about 1% for every 100m (~328 feet) above 1000m and then de-rate at about 1% per degree above 40 degrees Celsius.

 

Temperature Control: 

Even with de-rating, additional control might be required to maintain temperatures at acceptable levels. This is largely because VSDs/Soft Starters generate significant heat while operating. When the units dissipate heat and the heat is contained within a cabinet, the temperature within can easily exceed upper temperature limits and cause premature drive failure. EMHEATER do provide very specific requirements for installation clearances and mounting methods in order to ensure the units are adequately cooled. When the units are wall- or floor-mounted as stand-alone units these methods may be all that are needed, but installation within cabinets often demands additional temperature control. This temperature control is typically provided by Passive Cooling (fan cooling / forced air ventilation) or Active Cooling (refrigerated / air conditioned and water cooling).

In cases where the ambient temperature is not excessive, Passive Cooling (fan cooling) might be required for unit installation in enclosures. Fans for Passive Cooling should be sized to provide air flow which take into account the unit’s heat dissipation and assume a rated maximum ambient temperature. Fans are also often equipped with suitable filters to protect the cabinet contents from dust and debris (filter kits can typically be specified for indoor or outdoor use). For larger units, particularly when the cabinets are installed outdoors in warm climates, Active Cooling (air condition and water cooling) might be required.

Cooling requirements can be affected by installation location as well. For example, it is not recommended for cabinets to be installed in direct sunlight (if this cannot be avoided, then some type of shelter or sun screen is recommended). Installing a unit in a location shaded from the sun during the hotter parts of the day can significantly reduce cooling demands.

Suggested Cooling as follows:

Active Cooling (air condition and water cooling) Rule of Thumb = 75 BTU/h is required for every 1 HP

Passive Cooling (fan cooling) Rule of Thumb = 4 CFM is required for every 1 HP to maintain 10°C above ambient in the enclosure

 

Humidity/Condensation Control:

EMHEATER units are rated for up to 95% (RH) relative humidity (non-condensing) for VSDs and 90% for Soft Starters, so in all but extreme cases humidity is not a problem. However, cabinets subjected to wide temperature swings can be exposed to condensation. For example, a cabinet mounted outdoors in a temperate climate may see winter temperatures of 0°C or lower. This may not be an issue while the drive is operating, but if it is off for an extended period of time, condensation can develop on internal components. This problem is typically addressed by installing one or more space heaters within the enclosure (heaters are typically thermostatically controlled and interlocked for operation based on unit status).

 

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How to Wire Peripherals (EMC/EMI Filters, Chokes, SineWave Filters)

The following illustrates the various peripherals that could be required when using a Variable Speed Drive or Solar Drive:

Peripherals

The following illustrates the various components of each of the peripherals:

Peripheral Components

The following describes how to wire each respective peripheral component to the Variable Speed Drive or Solar Drive:

Input (Line) / Output (Load) EMC/EMI Filter (NOISE FILTER)

  • The Line side typically includes three Phase Terminals and an Earth Terminal. The Load side typically only includes three Phase Terminals.
  • For Input (Line) Filter – connect the Power Supply to the side where there are three Phase Terminals and an Earth Terminal and the other three Phase Terminals to the VSD.
  • For Output (Load) Filter – connect the VSD to the side where there are three Phase Terminals and an Earth Terminal and the other three Phase Terminals to the Motor.
  • Incorrect wiring could cause damage to the VSD or capacitors inside the filter.
  • Install close to the VSD.
  • Do not connect the Earth Terminal to the VSD.
  • Can be used when using multiple motors with a single VSD.
  • Do not install a Step Up/Down Transformer before or after an Input or Output Filter.

Input (Line) / Output (Load) Reactor/Choke (HARMONIC FILTER)

  • The Line side typically includes three Phase Terminals located at the Top of the Windings. The Load side typically includes three Phase Terminals located at the Bottom of the Windings. In some cases, instead of terminals connected directly to the windings, Terminal Blocks are available for connections, the first terminal being the Line Terminal for a phase and the subsequent Terminal being the Load Terminal for the same phase.
  • For Input (Line) Reactor/Choke – connect the Power Supply to the three Phase Terminals located at the Top of the Windings and the Bottom three Phase Terminals to the VSD.
  • For Output (Load) Reactor/Choke – connect the VSD to the three Phase Terminals located at the Top of the Windings and the Bottom three Phase Terminals to the Motor.
  • Incorrect wiring will affect the reactance value and impact performance.
  • For larger kW G3 Series VSDs, Output Reactors are recommended, for G5 Series, Input Reactors are recommended.
  • Silicone Steel Core temperatures should never exceed 100 °C, otherwise install a cooling fan for forced air cooling to prolong the service life of the Reactor/Choke.
  • Install close to the VSD.
  • Do not connect the Earth Plate to the VSD.
  • Can be used when using multiple motors with a single VSD.
  • Do not install a Step Up/Down Transformer before or after an Input or Output Choke.

* Please Note: The inductance and the design frequencies of Input Reactors and Output Reactors are different. If an Output Reactor is used as input, the harmonic suppression effect will be reduced. If an Input Reactor is used as output, the reactor temperature will be higher, and the voltage drop will increase. The VSD will not be affected, but it is not ideal to swop any of these reactors.

SineWave Filter

  • The Line side typically includes three Phase Terminals connected to the Windings ONLY. The Load side typically includes three Phase Terminals connected to the Windings AND the Capacitors. In some cases, instead of terminals connected directly to the windings, Terminal Blocks are available for connections, the first terminal usually being the Line Terminal for a phase and the subsequent Terminal being the Load Terminal for the same phase. Connect the VSD to the three Line Side Terminals and the Motor to the three Load Side Terminals.
  • Incorrect wiring may damage the VSD (and could cause VSD alarm – Err02 / Err04 / Err40)
  • Silicone Steel Core temperatures should never exceed 100 °C, otherwise install a cooling fan for forced air cooling to prolong the service life of the SineWave Filter.
  • Install close to the VSD.
  • Do not connect the Earth Plate to the VSD.
  • Can be used when using multiple motors with a single VSD.
  • Can install a Step Up/Down Transformer after a SineWave Filter (install Transformer close to SineWave Filter) – this is however not recommended as it may affect the performance of the SineWave Filter.

 

* Installation Spacing – Please see the VSD spacing requirements for the specific VSD to be used with the peripheral and apply the same spacing logic for the peripheral.

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How to use the Relay Output to Power a Panel Fan when Solar Drive is Running

The Solar Drive Relay Outputs can be used to control Panel Fans which switch on when the Solar Drive is running and switches off when the Solar Drive stops running. In order to do that a Power Source can be connected to one of the Solar Drive Relays with the Panel Fan connected to the Normally Open Relay Output. Using the Relay Output parameters, the Outputs can be controlled by the Solar Drive Running Status by setting the following parameter:

  • When using Relay 1 (TA1-TB1-TC1), set F5-04 = 1
  • When using Relay 2 (TA2-TB2-TC2 or TA-TB-TC), set F5-02 = 1

Please Note: For Smaller Drives with only one set of Relays (TA-TB-TC), use the TA2-TB2-TC2 Relay parameter settings.

Relay Panel Fan

Contact driving capacity:

  • 250 Vac, 3 A, COSø = 0.4
  • 30 Vdc, 1 A

 

Suggested Cooling as follows:

*Please also see Drive Cooling/Panel Fan Selection information here.

  • Active Cooling (air condition and water cooling) Rule of Thumb = 75 BTU/h is required for every 1 HP
  • Passive Cooling (fan cooling) Rule of Thumb = 4 CFM is required for every 1 HP to maintain 10°C above ambient in the enclosure

*Please also see Drive Derating information here.

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How to Troubleshoot Error 40

According to the technical manual Error 40 (By wave current limiting fault) is caused by either the Drive model being of too small power class or due to the load being too heavy or locked- rotor occurring on the motor.

Other common Causes however include the following:

  1. Poor Pump/Motor insulation or poor Cable insulation.
  2. Too long cable distance between Drive and Pump/Motor causing too much leakage current.
  3. VF Shock (Abnormal Load / Transient Overcurrent Protection) – Caused by instantaneous currents of more than 2 times the rated Drive current.

Some tests that can be done to try and pinpoint the issue include the following:

  1. Test whether the Motor Direction is correct – can be done without changing wiring, or via parameter setting:
    1. For Solar Drive (Single Line Keypad Model) set F0-09 = 1 (Reverse) and check whether it resolves the issue. If not, set F0-09 back to = 0 (Forward). Note that if F0-02=1 (Terminal Control), F0-09 cannot be changed, so first set F0-02=0 (Keypad Control) before setting it to Reverse Direction.
    2. For VSD or Solar Drive (Double Line Keypad Series) set b0-18 = 1 (Reverse) and check whether it resolves the issue. If not, set b0-18 back to = 0 (Forward). Note that if b0-02=1 (Terminal Control), b0-18 cannot be changed, so first set b0-02=0 (Keypad Control) before setting it to Reverse Direction.
  2. Test for VF Shock by setting the following parameters (make note of original values in order to change them back to the original values after the test):
    1. For Solar Drive (Single Line Keypad Model) set F3-10 = 64 (VF Over Excitation Gain) and F3-11 = 40 (VF Oscillation Suppression Gain) – make note of original values. If the Motor/Pump then runs without an error it can be confirmed as VF Shock causing the error. If this has no effect, set the values for these parameters back again and check the insulation of the pump/motor and cable.

According to experience in the use of submersible pumps, the possibility of leakage current is relatively large (high leakage current will not show a higher current reading on the VSD). Using an Output reactor could assist in resolving this and provide protection to the VSD and motor – submersible pumps generally have very poor power factors, so ideally size the VSD larger than the pump motor rating.

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How to Troubleshoot E.PAn Error

An E.PAn Error on a drive Keypad typically indicates a communication failure between the Keypad and Control Board.

  • If this error is being displayed permanently, check the cable connection between the Keypad and Control Board.
  • If this error is being displayed momentarily, this could be due to the DC Bus Voltage dropping below 100V – this could typically happen when using a Solar Drive where the Dormancy Voltage (Sleep) is set very low, creating a scenario where the drive is still busy decelerating before reaching the Dormancy Voltage (which would trigger Error Ar.01) while the DC Bus Voltage already dropped below 100V, which would then cause the communication error being displayed on the keypad. This could also be caused by a poor connection within the PV Array supplying the drive with power (sudden voltage drop occurs when a load is added).

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How to Setup Solar Drive End of Curve Parameters for Pump Systems

The End of Curve Parameter settings for pump systems are used to detect leaks/breaks in the system which can cause damage if not detected and corrected promptly. End of Curve detection is based on the measurement of the feedback pressure and the speed of the motor. If there is a leak/break in the system, pressure will decrease and the pump will accelerate to try and increase the system pressure to the desired pressure. When the drive is running at maximum speed with a feedback signal less than a specified % (FA-26) of the set point pressure (expected pressure) for a specified time period (FA-27), a fault alarm is initiated (Err31).

This is used to detect low pressure at full speed or whether the PID signal is lost. Example:

  • Set FA-26 = 97 %
  • Set FA-27 = 15 sec

When it is detected that the PID feedback is less than 97% the expected feedback for time period exceeding 15 seconds, the Solar Drive will stop and display fault alarm Err31.

 

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How to Setup Overcurrent Limiting when using Drives for Water Pumping Applications

Requirement:

In certain scenarios, when pumping water (due to pressure changes in the system), it could cause motors to draw high currents when running at full speed until the pressure stabilises as expected. This typically happens in areas where pivot irrigation systems are located on steep up and downhill slopes, and also happens in scenarios where irrigation systems are being adjusted (changing or opening additional irrigation sections causing sudden drops in pressure etc.). Running at these high currents is obviously not desired and could damage the motors. Normal drive overcurrent protection features will assist in stopping the motor when the current is too high (for too long), but this will stop the motor and the drive will show an error. Ideally in these scenarios one would rather prefer the drive to slow the motor down (reduce the running frequency to a speed where the current returns to an acceptable value) while pressure builds up and then speeds up again.

Solution/s:

  1. VSDs offer a current limiting feature which can be adjusted. Adjust parameter A2-00 (Current Limit Level – default = 150%) to a lower value (~120%) which will limit the frequency of the VSD when the current rises too high (see U0-19 monitoring parameter to view impact/adjustment). Please note that this feature is not applicable for Solar Drives. Please see Current Limiting Explained section later on.
  2. For scenarios where a PID is used for constant water pressure setups, one could also consider setting the PID Initial Value parameter C0-16 (FA-21 for Solar Drives) and the PID Initial Value Holding Time parameter C0-17 (FA-22 for Solar Drives) to limit the frequency for a period of time before speeding up (to give the pipe time to fill up and pressure to rise before speeding up). This typically only helps for scenarios where the high current issue occurs during initial start-up (not for scenarios where the current rises during full speed operation such as when changing or opening additional irrigation sections causing sudden drops in pressure or pivot systems operating on steep up and downhill slopes).
  3. For scenarios where the issue only occurs during initial start-up, one could also consider using the Simple PLC feature to control the start-up procedure. Please see the FAQ page regarding this for VSDs HERE and for Solar Drives HERE.

Current Limiting Explained:

Relevant Parameters:

  • A2-00 (Current Limit Level – default = 150%): This value is a percentage of the set motor rated current (d0-02). This current value (when exceeded) is used as the starting point to start the overcurrent stall suppression action.
  • A2-01 (Current Limit Selection – default = 1): To activate/deactivate the feature (0 = Invalid; 1 =Valid).
  • A2-02 (Current Limit Gain – default = 20): This parameter is used to adjust the over current suppression capacity of the drive. The larger the value is, the greater the over current suppression capacity will be. In condition of no over current occurrence, should set A2-02 to a small value. For small inertia loads the value should be small, otherwise, the system dynamic response will be slow. For large inertia loads the value should be large, otherwise, the suppression result will be poor and over current fault may occur. If the current limit gain is set to 0, the over current stall function is disabled.
  • A2-03 (Compensation Factor of speed multiplying current limit – default = 50%): Reduce the high-speed overcurrent stall action current, which is invalid when the compensation coefficient is 50%, and the action current in the weak magnetic zone corresponds to 100% of the recommended setting value of A2-00.

Explanation:

When the output current exceeds the value set in A2-00 (during acceleration, constant running, or deceleration), the current limit feature is enabled, and the output frequency will start to drop until the output current drops to below the current limit level – after that the output frequency will start to rise again attempting to reach the target frequency again.

VSD Current Limiting

 

The Current Limit Level Above Rated Frequency = (fs/fn) x k x LimitCur

  • fs: Running Frequency
  • fn: Rated Motor Frequency (d0-02)
  • k: Compensation Factor of speed multiplying Current Limit (A2-03)
  • LimitCur: Current Limit Level (A2-00)

VSD Current Limit Above Rated Frequency

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How to Setup Multiple Drives for Constant Water Pressure

SCENARIO

Use a Pressure Transmitter to measure water pressure in a pipe (use 4-20 mA Pressure Transmitter) and control the speed of 4 separate Drives based on a set Target Pressure – the Drives should start in sequence (and should only start if the first motor/s in the sequency already running are not able to achieve the target pressure). For example (see image later on) – the Leader Drive will be the first Drive to start running, and when it reaches 50hz and the pressure is still below the target pressure, the Follower 1 Drive will start running, then the Follower 2 Drive and then the Follower 3 Drive.

Please note that for Solar Drives this logic is somewhat adjusted – instead of using 50hz, the Start signal is set on a lower Frequency Reached value, thus, instead of triggering the next drive in the sequence when reaching full speed, the relay is set to trigger at a lower speed for the first drive (trigger frequency is increased slightly for each drive in the sequence). This is to allow for sudden drops in voltage (typically caused by sudden cloud cover) which might cause the drives to slow down momentarily (and would thus otherwise have caused all the Follower Drives to switch off because the Leader Drive slowed down momentarily). In addition to this the Solar Drives’ sensitivity (to PV input) is also adjusted (reduced for first the Drive and increased for each drive in the sequence).

When the measured water pressure (Pressure Transmitter Feedback) reaches the target pressure, the last Drive to start running will be the first to slow down (reduce Frequency) and keep slowing down until it reaches its Sleep Frequency (Hz) or until the pressure drops again. If the last running Drive reaches its Sleep Frequency and the pressure is still too high, the next Drive in the sequence should start slowing down. For example (see image later on) – if all 4 Drives are running and the target pressure is reached, the Follower 3 Drive will be the first Drive to start slowing down, and when it reaches its Sleep Frequency and the pressure is still above the target pressure, the Follower 2 Drive will start slowing down, then the Follower 1 Drive and then the Leader Drive. For this it is however important that the target pressures for the various drives are not all set the same (it’s important for the last Drive in the sequence to start slowing down first) – the Leader Drive should have the highest Target Pressure setting with the Target Pressure set somewhat less for each Follower Drive in the sequence. For example – set the Target Pressure for the Leader Drive = 4 bar, the Target Pressure for the Follower 1 Drive = 3.8 bar, the Target Pressure for the Follower 2 Drive = 3.6 bar and for the Follower 3 Drive = 3.4 bar.

To set the Drives to stop (Sleep) before reaching a speed of Zero Hz, a Sleep Frequency (and WakeUp Pressure) will be specified. When a Drive slows its speed down to the specified sleep Frequency, the Drive will continue to slow down to a complete stop. Once the pressure drops to below the WakeUp Pressure, the Drive will automatically start again. Set the WakeUp Pressure of the Leader Drive the highest and then reduce it for each Follower Drive, with the last Follower Drive having the lowest WakeUp Pressure.

It is also important that the Sleep Delay Time for the various Follower Drives are set to be relatively short (to prevent multiple Drives from starting to slow down simultaneously) – Set the Sleep Delay Time of the Leader Drive the longest and then reduce it for each Follower Drive, with the last Follower Drive having the shortest Sleep Delay Time.

Please note that for Solar Drives there are also PV Sleep/WakeUp Frequency parameters (and Delay Times) which can be used (the first Sleep function and last WakeUp function to be triggered will force the Solar Drive into Sleep Mode or WakeUp Mode.

 

WIRING

  • Pressure Transmitter Wiring

The Pressure Transmitter will be wired to the Leader Drive (ensure AI2 input Jumper default position is set for mA), and then the Leader Drive’s Analog Output (0-10V) will be used to relay the Pressure Transmitter reading to all the Follower Drives’ AI1 inputs (ensure AI1 input Jumpers’ default position is set for V).

As an alternative, each drive can use its own Pressure Transmitter, in which case the reading does not need to be relayed from the Leader Drive to all the other Follower Drives.

  •  Digital Input and Relay Wiring

To ensure each Follower Drive can only activate (will then still only start depending on actual and target pressure settings) once the Drive before it in the sequence has reached full speed (50Hz) or Set Frequency Reached (for Solar Drives), each Follower Drive’s digital input (used for Run Command – Terminal Control Mode) will be connected to the Drive before its Relay Output (which is set to switch on once the drive before it reaches the required speed).

The Leader Drive will have a manual On/Off switch to start the system (the example includes a Intermediate Relay as well in order to quickly switch off the system during power failure to prevent Power Failure Errors and also to protect the Drives – this would not be applicable for Solar Drives).

Multiple Drives Constant Water Pressure Setup Wiring

 

PARAMETER SETTINGS

Please download the Excel File from HERE for all the parameter settings as used for this example (different sheets for VSDs and Solar Drives).

 

OTHER PROTECTION SETTINGS

The following protection feature should ideally also be set up:

* End of Curve Settings at least on the first drive – for VSDs, see FAQ Entry HERE, for Solar Drives, see FAQ And HERE.

* Dry Run on all Drives – for VSDs, see FAQ Entry HERE, for Solar Drives, see FAQ HERE.

 

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How to Setup Leader-Follower Sequential Starting for Drives (Cascade Starting)

A Leader-Follower (Master/Slave) application is where two or more drives are electronically synchronised (Cascade Control). Typically, the first drive is configured as the “Leader” or “Master” and the subsequent drive/s that follow the master are referred to as the “Slaves” or “Followers”.

To use one Drive’s Running Frequency (Drive 1 = Master) as a reference point to specify when another Drive (Drive 2 = Follower) should start, please connect the Drives and set the required parameters as follows:

 

Connections:

To ensure each Follower Drive can only activate once the Drive before it in the sequence has reached a desired speed (Set Frequency Reached), each Follower Drive’s digital input (used for Run Command – Terminal Control Mode) will be connected to the Drive before its Relay Output (which is set to switch on once the drive before it reaches the required speed).

The Leader Drive will have a manual On/Off switch to start the system (the example includes a Intermediate Relay as well in order to quickly switch off the system during power failure to prevent Power Failure Errors and also to protect the Drives – this would not be applicable for Solar Drives).

Sequential Starting

 

Parameter Settings (VSDs and Solar Drives):

All drives will use Terminal Control as starting method: Set b0-02 = 1 / F0-02 = 1

  • Leader:
    • Set b4-02 = 17 / F5-04 = 3 (Relay to Switch when Frequency-level Detection FDT1 Output has been reached)
    • Set b4-22 / F8-19 = Desired speed (Hz) which should trigger the next drive to start
  • Follower 1:
    • Set b4-02 = 17 / F5-04 = 3 (Relay to Switch when Frequency-level Detection FDT1 Output has been reached)
    • Set b4-22 / F8-19 = Desired speed (Hz) which should trigger the next drive to start
  • Follower 2:
    • Set b4-02 = 17 / F5-04 = 3 (Relay to Switch when Frequency-level Detection FDT1 Output has been reached)
    • Set b4-22 / F8-19 = Desired speed (Hz) which should trigger the next drive to start

 

For more information regarding the use of VSDs for Leader-Follower applications, please our blog entry HERE.

For setting up Leader-Follower VSD Speed Synchronisation (Cascade Control), please see FAQ entry HERE.

 

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How to Setup Forward and Reverse Running for a Solar Drive

For a EM12 SP Drive or EM15 SP Drive with Single Line keypad the Reverse function is only possible while PV Mode is switched Off. In order to do this the following is required:

  • Connect a Rocker Switch to DI1 (for FWD) and DI2 (for REV) – see VSD FWD/REV setup as example HERE.
  • Bridge DI2 and DI3
  • Set F0-02 = 1 (Terminal Control)
  • Set F4-00 = 1 (DI1 = FWD: the default is set to 1)
  • Set F4-01 = 2 (DI2 = REV: before being able to set this, first set F4-05=0)
  • Set F4-02 = 53 (DI3 = Stop PV Mode: the default is set to 53)

 

* Note that the FWD/REV feature is not applicable for Single-Phase Motors (unless when using a Three Wire setup without Capacitors).

* For a EM15 SP Drive with Double Line keypad the Reverse function is possible while in PV Mode, ensure b2-15 = 0 to activate the Reverse functionality.

Rocker-Switch

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How to Setup an External Switch for a Solar Drive to Switch Between AC and PV Mode

In order to switch between using AC or PV mode an external switch (selector) can be connected to the Solar Drive to alternate between these 2 options. This however requires the following control board connections and switches and parameter settings:

Control Board Setup

Please connect on/off switches between the following terminals:

  • DI1 and COM (to switch the Drive On/Off)
  • DI3 and COM (to switch between AC and PV modes)

Parameter Settings

For a EM12 SP Drive or EM15 SP Drive with Single Line keypad, please set the following parameters:

  • F0-02 = 1 (Terminal Control)
  • F4-00 = 1 (DI1 = Run)
  • F4-02 = 53 (DI3 = PV Mode Stop)

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How to Setup an External Stop/Start for a Solar Drive

Setup External On/Off Switch (Single On/Off Selector)

When using a normal Open/Close Switch, connect the Normally Open wire with DI1 and the Common wire with Common and then set:

  • F0-02 = 1 (terminal control)

Ideally also set the following (please see notes further on for further explanation):

  • Set F6-20 = 1 (Free Stop Mode)
  • Set F4-35 = 15.0 (DI1 On Delay time to delay the Start-up Process)

If the External Device only has a Normally Closed connection (not Normally Open) the Solar Drive Start/Stop function will operate in the opposite way intended. In this case, also set:

  • F4-38 = 00001(Low Level Valid)

 

Setup of External Push Buttons (On and Off Buttons)

When using Push Buttons use a 3-Line Mode Stop/Start Setup:

  • F0-02 = 1 (Terminal Control)
  • F4-11 = 2 (3-Line Mode 1)
  • F4-00 = 1 (RUN Enabled) -> DI1 Terminal Connection
  • F4-01 = 3 (3-Line Control) -> DI2 Terminal Connection
  • 3rd Line Connected to COM

 

To add an Emergency Stop, connect the Emergency Stop Button to DI3 and COM and set:

  • F4-02 = 47 (DI3 Function as Emergency Stop)

 

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How to Setup an External Potentiometer for Speed Control for a Solar Drive

This setup is for a EM12 SP Drive or EM15 SP Drive with Single Line keypad, for EM15 SP Drive with Double Line keypad, please use same setup as for VSDs as listed HERE.

Instead of using the Potentiometer on the drive Keypad, an external Potentiometer can also be used for speed control (which can then be installed at an alternate location). This can be done by connecting the External Potentiometer to the Drive Control Terminals as follows (for a 3-Wire Potentiometer):

  • Connect the Power Pins of the Potentiometer (usually the outside 2 connection points) to the +10V and GND terminals on the Drive (Swop connections for Clockwise vs Anti-Clockwise Operation).
  • Connect the Output/Signal Pin of the Potentiometer to AI1 (usually the centre connection point). Please note that the AI1 jumper on the control board needs to be set to use 0~10V (which is the default). When using AI2 or AI3 the jumper needs to be set accordingly.
  • Set F0-03 = 2 (to use AI1 as speed reference point)

Potentiometer Wiring

Potentiometer Wiring

*Please Note:

  • Swopping the Voltage and Ground wires on the Potentiometer will change the Acceleration/Deceleration direction (Clockwise vs Anti-Clockwise).
  • Only use Potentiometers with a resistance range of 1 kΩ~5kΩ.
  • Please use shielded cable to prevent electromagnetic interference by other appliances on the analog signal sent to the VSD. For EMC Mitigation: 1) Allow for at least 20cm distance between communication cables and motor wires. 2) Do not use the same cable tray. 3) Insert wires in metal pipes if possible.

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How to Setup a Solar Drive to use the built-in simple PLC as Frequency Source

When the simple programmable logic controller (PLC) mode is used as the frequency source, the running frequency of the drive can be switched over among the 16 frequency points (Multi-Function and Simple PLC Group FC Parameters). You can also set the holding times and acceleration/deceleration times of the 16 frequency points using the FC Parameters.

Assume for example a scenario where the Solar Drive should accelerate during start-up up to 40Hz, and then maintain that speed for 3 minutes (180s), after which it should then accelerate further to 50Hz.

Set the following parameters:

  • F0-03 = 7 (Main Frequency Source = Built-in PLC)
  • FC-00 = 80% (Multi-Function 0 = 80% of 50Hz = 40Hz)
  • FC-01 = 100% (Multi-Function 1= 100% of 50Hz = 50Hz)
  • FC-16 = 1 (To keep the value after the cycle is complete)
  • FC-18 = 180s (Running time of simple PLC segment 0 – corresponding to Multi-Function 0)
  • FC-19 = 0 (Acceleration/Deceleration time of segment 0 – where 0 = F0-17/18; 1 = F8-03/4; 2 = F8-05/6; 3 = F8-07/8)
  • FC-20 = 1s (Running time of simple PLC segment 1 – corresponding to Multi-Function 1)
  • FC-21 = 0 (Acceleration/Deceleration time of segment 0 – where 0 = F0-17/18; 1 = F8-03/4; 2 = F8-05/6; 3 = F8-07/8)

* Please Note: Do not set F0-09=1 to Reverse the Direction of the motor when using the Simple PLC, if the motor direction needs to be changed, ideally change the motor wiring or use negative values when setting the Multi-Function Parameters (FC-00 and FC-01 in the above example). Solar Drives generally only allow Reverse Direction when used in AC Mode (not when used in PV Mode).

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How to Setup a Solar Drive to use AC Input

To use a Solar Drive as a normal Variable Speed Drive with an AC input power supply (no Solar), please set the following:

 

For a EM12 SP Drive or EM15 SP Drive with Single Line keypad, please set the following parameters:

  • FE-00 = 0 (PV Inverter Disabled)

 

For a EM15 SP Drive with Double Line keypad, please set the following parameters:

  • A1-00 = 0 (PV Inverter Disabled)

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How to Setup a Solar Drive to Stop/Start based on Sunlight

Connect DI1 to COM and then set the following parameters (ideally add an on/off switch o this circuit to allow for manual start/stop as well):

 

For a EM12 SP Drive or EM15 SP Drive with Single Line keypad:

  • F0-02=1 (terminal control)

 

For a EM15 SP Drive with Double Line keypad:

  • b0-02=1 (terminal control)
  • bb-09 = 20 (unlimited fault reset times)

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How to Setup a Solar Drive Free Stop

For a EM12 SP Drive or EM15 SP Drive with Single Line keypad:

  • F6-10=1 (free stop)

 

For a EM15 SP Drive with Double Line keypad:

  • b1-07=1 (free stop)

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How to Setup a Solar Drive for specific Motor Parameters

Please set the following parameters for Single Line Keypad Display Models and Double Line Keypad Display Models:

Make sure that PV Mode has been enabled:

  • FE-00 / A1-00 = 1

Make sure that all Motor Parameters has been set (F1-01F1-05 / d0-00 ~ d0-04):

  • F1-01 / d0-00: Motor Rated Power
  • F1-02 / d0-01: Motor Rated Voltage
  • F1-03 / d0-02: Motor Rated Current
  • F1-04 / d0-03: Motor Rated Frequency
  • F1-05 / d0-04: Motor Rated Speed

Also make sure to set the Motor Overcurrent Protection Settings (FE-25FE-27 / for Double Line Keypad Display Models this is based on d0-02):

  • FE-25: Overcurrent Detection Current
  • FE-26: Overcurrent Delay Time
  • FE-27: Overcurrent Reset Delay

*Please Note: When using a Solar Drive in AC Mode (FE-00=0), then the above Overcurrent Protection settings will not be active, to set Overcurrent Protection when using AC Mode, please use the following settings and wiring:

    • Wiring: Wire DI3 and to TA2 and TC2 to COM
    • F4-02: DI3 Function = 48 (External Stop Terminal)
    • F8-36: Output Current Over Limit (example: set as 105%)
    • F8-37: Output Current Over Limit Detect Relay Time (example: set as 10s)
    • F5-02: Relay 2 (TA2 and TC2) = 36 (Output Current Exceeded)

Low Frequency Protection: To protect motors from running too slow during low sunlight periods (especially for borehole applications), please adjust the detection frequency of low frequency protection. The default = 10 or 15Hz (depending on model), adjust it to ~ 25Hz (please confirm with the pump manufacturer what the lowest acceptable speed for the pump is to prevent damage). The frequency should not be set to less than the lowest speed at which the system is functional (e.g., lowest speed at which the motor needs to run before water exits the borehole).

    • FE-19 / A1-22

Also make sure to set the Dry Run Protection (if required) Settings (FE-22 ~ FE-24 / A1-25 ~ A1-27):

  • FE-22 / A1-25: Underload Detection Current
  • FE-23 / A1-25: Underload Delay Time
  • FE-24 / A1-25: Underload Reset Delay

 

*When using a single PV Array and connecting multiple Solar Drives to the same array, please adjust the Sleep and Wake-Up Voltages and Frequencies of the drives to ensure they don’t start/stop simultaneously.

    • FE-16 ~ FE-21A1-19 ~ A1-24

 

*Please Note: When using a Solar Drive in AC Mode (FE-00=0 / A1-00=0), all the FE / A1 Parameters and features are not applicable/active.

*Perform Auto tuning if applicable/required.

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How to Setup a Manual Speed Selector Switch (Single-Line SP Drives)

In some instances it might be required to have various predefined speed selections for a drive using a manual multi-stage switch. This can be achieved by using an external multi-stage switch connected to the drive’s Multi-Function Terminals and programming the Multi-Function References accordingly.

The following scenario is only applicable to EM12 Series Solar Drives and EM15 Series Solar Drives with Single-Line Keypads – for EM15 Series Solar Drives with Double-Line Keypads (similar parameters as for VSDs), please see the following FAQ entry: VSD Speed Selector Switch

Consider a scenario using a 3-stage switch as per the example below, where the switch selections should reflect speeds of 50% (25Hz), 70% (35Hz) and 100% (50Hz) of the Max speed (50Hz). To achieve this the switch needs to be connected to the Digital Input Terminals of the Drive. Since the Switch selection Option 0 (K2) is always off (only K1 and K2 switches On/Off), only Option 1 (K1) and Option 2 (K2) needs to be connected. In the example below K1 is connected to DI3 and K2 connected to DI4 (thus requiring setting parameters F4-02 and F4-03 accordingly). Based on the Switch Options table below these options thus reflect Multi-Function References 1, 0 and 2 in the below table (thus requiring setting parameters FC-01, FC-00 and FC-02 as a percentage of F0-11). To ensure the Drive acknowledges this setup as the Speed Reference Point for the Drive, also set F0-03 = 6 (Multi-Function). In summary, the following parameters needs to be set:

  • F0-03 = 6 (To set Speed Reference as the Multi-Functions)
  • F4-02 = 12 (To set DI3 Terminal as Multi-Function Terminal 1)
  • F4-03 = 13 (To set DI4 Terminal as Multi-Function Terminal 2)
  • FC-01 = User Defined Value (to set Reference 1 speed value as a percentage of F0-10)
  • FC-00 = User Defined Value (to set Reference 0 speed value as a percentage of F0-10)
  • FC-02 = User Defined Value (to set Reference 2 speed value as a percentage of F0-10)
  • F0-10 = User Defined Value (max speed default = 50Hz)

SP Single-Line Keypad Multi Function Switch

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How to Setup a custom Motor Frequency Limit for a Drive

When setting Motor Parameters for a VSD or Solar Drive it includes a Frequency parameter (d0-03 for VSDs and F1-04 for Solar Drives) which is used to specify the Motor Rated Frequency. In the event that there is a requirement to run a motor slower/faster than its rated frequency (default = 50Hz) or limit it to prevent from running slower than a specified minimum target speed (more than the 0Hz default), the following parameters should be set – the first parameter is for VSDs (and Solar Drives with Double Line Keypad Displays) and the second parameter is for Solar Drives (with Single Line Keypad Displays):

  • d0-03 / F1-04 = Rated Frequency of the motor (see motor nameplate)
  • b0-12 / F0-08 = Digital/Preset Frequency Setting (default 50Hz, but cannot be set as more than b0-13/F0-10 if that were modified) – Initial frequency if the frequency source is digital setting or terminal Up/Down.
  • b0-13 / F0-10 = Maximum Frequency (default 50Hz) – the Maximum Frequency that should be allowed for the Motor at any given time (irrespective of what means of input is used to set the Frequency). Minimum =50hz, so only required to set for motors that needs to run at a higher frequency.
  • b0-15 / F0-12 = Frequency Upper Limit (default = 50Hz, but cannot be set as less than b0-17/F0-14 or more than b0-13/F0-10 if that were modified), to prevent the motor from running too fast.
  • b0-17 / F0-14 = Frequency Lower Limit (default = 0Hz, but cannot be set as more than b0-15/F0-12 if that were modified), to prevent the motor from running too slow.

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How to Reset a Solar Drive (Factory Restore)

To Reset a Solar Drive to its factory settings:

For a EM12 SP Drive or EM15 SP Drive with Single Line keypad, please set FP-01 equal to one of the following values (depending on the requirement):

  • FP-01 = 1(This will restore Default Settings except: Motor Parameters, Frequency Command Resolution / Frequency Unit (F0-22), Fault Records, Accumulative Power-On time (F7-13), Accumulative Running Time (F7-09), and Accumulative Power Consumption (F7-14)).
  • FP-01 = 2 (This will restore Device Records which includes the Fault Records, Accumulative Power-On time (F7-13), Accumulative Running Time (F7-09), and Accumulative Power Consumption (F7-14) which is not reset if FP-01 is set equal to 1).

To Backup or Restore parameter settings, set FP-01 equal to one of the following values (depending on the requirement):

  • FP-01 = 4 (This will make a backup of the Motor Parameters to the Keypad memory which can then be restored again if needed).
  • FP-01 = 501 (This will restore a previous backup of the Motor Parameters which has been made to the Keypad).

 

For a EM15 SP Drive with Double Line keypad, please set A0-09 equal to one of the following values (depending on the requirement):

  • A0-09 = 1(This will restore Default Settings except: Motor Parameters, Frequency Command Resolution / Frequency Unit (b0-11), Fault Records, Accumulative Power-On time (b9-08), Accumulative Running Time (b9-09), and Accumulative Power Consumption (b9-10)).
  • A0-09 = 4 (This will restore Device Records which includes the Fault Records, Accumulative Power-On time (b9-08), Accumulative Running Time (b9-09), and Accumulative Power Consumption (b9-10) which is not reset if A0-09 is set equal to 1).
  • A0-09 = 2 (This will restore all Device Records and all Default Settings – including the Motor Parameters which is not reset if A0-09 is set equal to 1).

To Backup or Restore parameter settings, set A0-11 equal to one of the following values (depending on the requirement):

  • A0-11 = 1 (This will make a backup of the Motor Parameters to the Keypad memory which can then be restored again if needed).
  • A0-11 = 2 (This will restore a previous backup of the Motor Parameters which has been made to the Keypad).

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How to Change the Default Keypad Parameter Display Lines for Double Line Keypads

The default parameter display for Double Line Keypads (EM15 VSDs and Solar Drives) can be changed as follows:

Bottom Keypad Line:

To change the Display for the bottom line use the Shift Key (double right arrow) on the keypad to scroll through all the running parameters. The last parameter on display will be kept as the default display (Please see FAQ Entry HERE for more details on setting this up). When selecting the PRG Key (Programme), this keypad line will allow for scrolling through all the various VSD setting parameters (in order to edit any of the required parameters). The setting parameters list can however also be changed by updating the MF-K (Multi-Function) key function (which by default is set to Forward JOG when pressing and holding the key). To change this, set b9-01 = 5 (Function Parameters) and A0-06 =1 (To allow displaying the Function Parameters). After updating these, whenever the PRG key is pressed, the bottom keypad line will offer three options to select from using the MF-K button as follows:

  • BASE: Shows all function parameters
  • USER: Shows only the most common user parameters (16 Parameters as follows: b0-01~b0-03; b0-07; b0-08; b0-21; b0-22; b3-00; b3-01; b4-00~b4-02; b5-04; b5-07; b6-00; b6-01)
  • C: Shows modified parameters only – shows all parameters which does not equal the default value used by the software

 

Top Keypad Line:

To change the Display for the top line set parameter b9-11 using the desired value (see list of options below):

  • U0-00 Running frequency
  • U0-01 Setting frequency
  • U0-02 DC Bus voltage
  • U0-03 Output voltage
  • U0-04 Output current
  • U0-05 Output power
  • U0-06 Output torque
  • U0-07 DI state
  • U0-08 DO state
  • U0-09 AI1 voltage
  • U0-10 AI2 voltage
  • U0-11 AI3 voltage
  • U0-14 Load speed display
  • U0-15 PID setting
  • U0-16 PID feedback
  • U0-17 PLC stage
  • U0-18 Input pulse frequency
  • U0-19 Feedback speed, unit:0.01Hz
  • U0-20 Remaining running time
  • U0-21 AI1 voltage before correction
  • U0-22 AI2 voltage before correction
  • U0-23 AI3 voltage before correction
  • U0-24 Linear speed
  • U0-26 Present power-on time
  • U0-27 Present running time
  • U0-28 Actual feedback speed
  • U0-29 Encoder feedback speed
  • U0-30 Main frequency X
  • U0-31 Auxiliary frequency Y
  • U0-32 Viewing any register address value
  • U0-34 Motor temperature
  • U0-35 Target torque
  • U0-37 Power factor angle
  • U0-38 ABZ position
  • U0-39 Target voltage of V/F separation
  • U0-40 Output voltage of V/F separation
  • U0-41 DI input state visual display
  • U0-42 DO output state visual display
  • U0-43 DI function state visual display 1
  • U0-44 DO function state visual display 2
  • U0-45 Fault information
  • U0-46 Phase Z signal counting
  • U0-47 Present setting frequency (%)
  • U0-48 Present running frequency (%)
  • U0-49 Frequency inverter running state
  • U0-50 Sent value of point-point communication
  • U0-51 Received value of point-point communication

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How to Autotune a Solar Drive

For a EM12 SP Drive or EM15 SP Drive with Single Line keypad, please set the following parameters:

  • Set F1-01 up to F1.05 according to motor nameplate
  • Set F1-37 = 1 for static auto tuning (if F0-02=1, first set it to 0, for autotuning)

Press RUN to start the autotuning process. The Solar Drive and Motor will go through a short working process and stop by itself, after which certain motor parameters would have been optimised.

 

For a EM15 SP Drive with Double Line keypad, please set the following parameters:

  • Set d0-00 up to d0-04 according to motor nameplate
  • If the motor can be disconnected from the load:
    • Set d0-30 = 2 and press ENTER
  • If the motor cannot be disconnected from the load:
    • Set d0-30 = 3 and press ENTER

*if b0-02=1, first set it to 0, for autotuning)

Press RUN to start the autotuning process. The Solar Drive and Motor will go through a short working process and stop by itself, after which the d0-05 up to d0-09 parameters would have been optimised.

  • d0-05: Stator resistance (asynchronous motor)
  • d0-06: Rotor resistance (asynchronous motor)
  • d0-07: Leakage inductive reactance(asynchronous motor)
  • d0-08: Mutual inductive reactance(asynchronous motor)
  • d0-09: No-load current(asynchronous motor)

PLEASE NOTE: Autotuning cannot be done when the drive is in Terminal Control or Remote Control Mode (needs to be in keypad Control mode: b0-02=0 or F0-02=0). After setting the Autotune Parameter the keypad will display “TUNE”, when this is displayed press the RUN button and let the drive complete the autotuning process (~30 seconds) after which the drive can be used.

*When using a single Solar Drive to run more than one motor, do not perform autotuning.

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Drive Maintenance (General Inspections and Repairs)

Improper Drive usage (installation and/or operation) and lack of maintenance (including failure to adjust based on changes in operating conditions) could shorten the service life of a Drive and/or cause Drive failure or faults. The impact of temperature, humidity, dust, and vibration could lead to poor heat dissipation and component aging of Drives (resulting in potential failure or reducing the service life of the Drive). This makes general inspections and maintenance particularly important (it is recommended that periodic inspections should be conducted at least once a year). Also ensure the correct size Drive is selected for the operation/application – please details HERE.

Before inspecting a Drive, ensure the power supply is cut off (ensure the power indicator of the Drive is off). Wait for approximately 15mins to ensure internal capacitors are discharged.

 

GENERAL INSPECTIONS and VERIFICATIONS

Take note of the Temperature and Humidity of the surrounding environment. Please see details regarding Drive Derating due to Temperature/Altitude/Humidity HERE. Excessive temperatures could cause the Drive to overheat (typically cause an Error alarm). In severe cases, it could damage the Drive’s power components and even cause a short circuit. Inspect for any possible moisture or dirt/dust evident inside the Drive, especially on the circuitry (which could cause short circuits). Excessive humidity could also cause a short circuit inside the Drive.

Check that all components are clean and for any signs of corrosion. If it’s evident that there is a lot of dust or moist inside the Drive itself, open the Drive and clean it.

Inspect all connections and ensure there aren’t any loose screws, bolts, or plug-in’s, also ensure that none of the conductors or insulators are corroded (if necessary, clean by wiping them off with alcohol). Also check for any signs of arcing on any of the component terminals. Ensure that all wiring and contactors/breakers are according to specification – please details HERE.

Also ensure that Shielded/Screened cable (cable with a common conductive outer layer for electromagnetic shielding) is used when connecting a Drive with any external instrumentation (such as PLC’s, Transmitters, etc.).

When the Drive is running, listen for any abnormal sounds or vibrations from the Drive and Motor. When the Drive is running, ensure the built-in Drive cooling fans are working properly (ensure there are adequate air flow and listen for any abnormal sounds or vibrations). Remove the Drive cooling fan/s if necessary and remove any dust deposits that might be present.

Drives (with IP20 rating) are generally installed in cabinets/enclosures/panels, which should also include adequate ventilation and cooling for the Drive. Please see Drive Cooling/Panel Fan Selection details HERE. Also ensure these fans operate smoothly (ensure there are adequate air flow and listen for any abnormal sounds). Ensure that the fans rotate smoothly, rotates in the correct direction (extraction fans should extract hot air out of the enclosure and not suck air in) and that there are no dust or obstructions in the air inlets. Clean the ventilation ducts and fans if necessary and remove any dust deposits that might be present (also remove dust from filters).

Other external aspects to inspect includes all other Drive peripherals that might be installed such as Reactors/Chokes, Filters, Brake Units/Resistors, etc. Ensure none of these components are overheating (could possibly see or smell burning/overheating) or make any abnormal noises. Also check the electric motor for possible issues.

 

GENERAL COMPONENT REPLACEMENTS

Drives are composed of various components, for some of these the lifetimes will gradually reduce as they age due to long-term usage, which could ultimately cause Drive faults and/or failure. The most vulnerable parts of Drives include the Cooling Fans and DC Bus Capacitors. The service lifetimes of these components are closely related to and dependant on the impact of the environment, usage conditions and regular maintenance, but below are general indications of their typical lifetimes:

  • Cooling Fan: 3 ~ 4 Years / 30 000 ~ 70 000 Operating Hrs
  • DC Bus Capacitor (Electrolytic Capacitor): 5 ~ 6 Years

To ensure the long-term normal operation of the Drives, these components should be replaced as required.

Cooling Fans

The power module of the Drive is the component that generates the most heat. The heat generated by continuous operation must be discharged in time using Cooling Fans. Possible damage of a Cooling Fan includes bearing wear and blade aging, please check for any cracks in the fan blade and any abnormal vibration and sounds during the operation of the Cooling Fan. Please pay attention when replacing a Cooling Fan to ensure it is the same specification as the original Cooling Fan (AC/DC, Voltage, Amps, CFM, RPM etc.) and to connect the wiring correctly. A good indicator of an already failed/damaged Cooling Fan would be when a Drive trips with Error 14 (IGBT Module Overheat).

DC Bus Capacitors

The DC Bus Capacitors’ (Intermediate DC loop filter capacitors / Electrolytic capacitors) main function is to smooth the DC voltage and absorb the low frequency harmonics in the DC circuit. The heat generated by its continuous operation plus the heat generated by the Drive itself will accelerate the drying up of its electrolyte (electrolyte aging). Other impacts on the Capacitor lifetime include poor quality of the input power supply, high external temperatures, and frequent changes in load. This directly affects capacity and, generally, if the capacity is reduced by more than 20%, the Capacitors should be replaced. Test Capacitors using a Multimeter set to Capacitance testing and connect the red and black probe to each connection point of the Capacitor. Readings should align with the Capacitor technical specifications as indicated on the Capacitor itself. A good visual indicator of an already failed/damaged Capacitor would be when there are signs of leakage of the Capacitor Liquid or if the Capacitor Safety Valve is protruding.

 

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Drive Fault Codes and Troubleshooting

Fault Codes, Causes and Solutions

EM15 Inverters (VSDs and Solar Drives) have 35 types of warning/protection functions. In case of a fault the protection function gets invoked and the inverter will stop the output, invoke the faulty relay contact, and the fault code will be displayed on the keypad display panel of the inverter.

* Parameter codes listed below are formatted in colour for VSDs and Solar Drives (Double Line Keypad Display Models) and for Solar Drives (Single Line Keypad Display Models).

Fault Codes 1

Fault Codes 2

Fault Codes 3

Troubleshooting Other Common Faults, Causes and Solution

* Parameter codes listed below are formatted in colour for VSDs and Solar Drives (Double Line Keypad Display Models) and for Solar Drives (Single Line Keypad Display Models).

Common Faults

 

Solar Drive Alarm Codes

* A- Alarm Codes are relevant to Solar Drive models with Double-Line Display Keypads and Ar. Alarm Codes are relevant to Solar Drives models with Single-Line Display Keypad.

Solar Drive Alarm Codes

 

Drive Error Log

When troubleshooting a fault, please analyse the below list of parameter values from the error log which correlates with the specific related fault (latest 3 faults). This data could provide valuable information in narrowing down the exact problem area, possible cause as well as corrective actions required to resolve the issue.

* Parameter codes listed below are formatted in colour for VSDs and Solar Drives (Double Line Keypad Display Models) and for Solar Drives (Single Line Keypad Display Models).

Error Log

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Drive Dimensions and Panel Spacing Requirements

PLEASE NOTE: Please see Drive Derating Specifications, VSD Sizing/Selection and Solar Drive Sizing/Selection for appropriate power selection, Cooling/Panel Fan Selection to ensure adequate ventilation as well as Drive Wiring and MCCB/Contactor Selection.

Drive Dimensions

Please see the below images listing the dimensions (in mm) for the various Drives according to model and size:

Drive Dimensions

Drive Dimensions - Images

PLEASE NOTE:

  • In some instances Small Frame units can also be manufactured as Medium Frame units – please confirm correct frame size.
  • Pricing for Large Wall Mounted and Large Floor Standing units vary (Floor Standing Units are more expensive). Standard pricing is for Large Wall Mounted units, if Large Floor Standing units are required, please specifically request as such.
  • Images indicate Double Line Display Keypads, for Solar Drives the Keypads only include a Single Line Display.

 

Installation Direction and Spacing

In order to protect the service life of Drives and reduce impact on performance, please ensure correct installation direction and spacing as follows:

VSD Installation Direction and Spacing

PLEASE NOTE:

  • Install the Drive vertically to dissipate heat upwards. If several Drives are installed in one cabinet, please install them side by side, do not to install above each other.
  • Images indicate Double Line Display Keypads, for Solar Drives the Keypads only include a Single Line Display.
  • When installing Peripherals (Chokes/Reactors, SineWave Filters or EMC/EMI Filters), also use same spacing requirements as above for the peripherals (Please also see Peripherals Wiring).

 

External Keypad Tray Installation

Drive keypads can be removed and installed into panel doors as illustrated below:

External Keypad Installation Dimensions

 

PLEASE NOTE:

  • Small Keypads (Small Frame Drives) allows for Ribbon Extension Cables only and the keypad can be installed directly into a panel door (additional Keypad Frame not required).
  • Large Keypads (Medium and Large Frame Drives) allows for Ribbon and Ethernet Extension Cables and the keypad has to be fitted using a separate Keypad Frame installed into the panel door.
  • Images indicate Double Line Display Keypads, for Solar Drives the Keypads only include a Single Line Display.
  • Small Frame Drives have less Terminals on the Control Board allowing for less Digital/Analog/Relay Inputs/Outputs. For applications where more terminals are required, Medium Frame units are required, please specifically request as such.
  • Small Frame Solar Drives do not allow for Solar Assist Mode (using both PV and AC Power supply simultaneously) since the Small Frame Units do not have a P- terminal. For applications where Solar Assist Mode (see Understanding Solar Assist Mode) is required, Medium Frame units are required, please specifically request as such.

 

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Basic Drive Testing and Troubleshooting

Guidelines for Basic Drive Testing and Troubleshooting

As a first step before doing any tests, please refer to some of the general inspection steps as noted in the Drive Maintenance (General Inspections and Repairs) FAQ page Here.

Static Tests (Dry Tests)

To do the static tests, first make sure the power supply to the drive is disconnected (no power on drive – doing these tests with power on will damage the Multimeter). Set the Multimeter to Diode Voltage test mode as follows:

Multimeter

Rectifier Circuit

To test the incoming (power supply circuit), connect the Black Probe of the Multimeter to the P+ terminal of the drive and the Red Probe to each of the R, S and T terminals, each time measuring the voltage. After that, connect the Red Probe of the Multimeter to the P- terminal of the drive and the Black Probe to each of the R, S and T terminals, each time measuring the voltage.

* Please note, for small drive units without a P- terminal the drive needs to be opened to do this test – please see details at the end of the IGBT Circuit test section.

Results: Expected values should be approximately ~0.4V. The results for different kW drives will differ, but the 6 measurements should be very similar (for drives larger than 160kW not lower than 0.2 and for drives smaller than 160kw not lower than 0.3). If any of the measurements tests as Open Loop or values that differ greatly from the expected values noted above, it is most likely that the Rectifier has been damaged. In such an event, please contact us for support.

 

IGBT Circuit

To test the outgoing (power output circuit), connect the Black Probe of the Multimeter to the P+ terminal of the drive and the Red Probe to each of the U, V and W terminals, each time measuring the voltage. After that, connect the Red Probe of the Multimeter to the P– terminal of the drive and the Black Probe to each of the U, V and W terminals, each time measuring the voltage.

* Please note, for small drive units without a P- terminal the drive needs to be opened to do this test – please see details later in this section.

Results: Expected values should be approximately ~0.4V. The results for different kW drives will differ, but the 6 measurements should be very similar (for drives larger than 160kW not lower than 0.2 and for drives smaller than 160kw not lower than 0.3). If any of the measurements tests as Open Loop or values that differ greatly from the expected values noted above, it is most likely that the IGBT has been damaged. In such an event, please contact us for support.

To download the Excel test file for printing and noting the measurements, please download the IGBT and Rectifier Tests Excel file Here.

 

Small Drive Testing (without P- Terminal)

Small drive units without a P- terminal (some drives up to 2.2kW) needs to be opened to access the Power Board to complete the above tests. For all tests above where a P- terminal is used for testing, please use the terminal as indicated in the image below as the P- terminal.

Power Board

Dynamic Tests (Wet Tests)

If the Static Test results are normal, the Dynamic Tests can be performed (power-on tests). The following points must be noted before and after power-up:

Before Powering On

Confirm that the input voltage is correct and check whether the connection ports of the drive are correctly connected and whether any of the connections are loose (abnormal connections may sometimes cause the drive to malfunction).

After Powering On

Check that the DC Bus Voltage is normal (should be ~ 1.414 x the AC Power Supply Voltage) – can be done by measuring the DC Voltage between Terminals P+ and P- and also by checking the DC Bus Voltage as displayed on the drive keypad (use the Shift Key on the keypad to scroll through the different display values: Frequency, Amps, DC Bus Voltage and Output Voltage). With 30kW and larger drives one should typically hear the DC Contactor pulling in.

If the DC Bus Voltage is normal and the Operating Panel (Keypad) does not work (no display) or flashes regularly or displays E.Pan, it could be caused by a faulty Keypad Socket or damaged Keypad. Firstly, remove the Keypad and check whether the LED indicator on the Control Board is on after the drive is powered on. If not (first switch off all power supply and wait 15mins before doing this), disconnect and connect the cable between the Control Board and Power Board (or Drive Board for units larger than 22kW) to ensure they are connected properly. If the issue persists (after power on again), please contact us for support (could be damaged Drive/Power Board). If the LED indicator does go on, check that the pins of the Keypad Socket on the Control Board are in good working condition. If possible, replace the Keypad to confirm whether it’s a faulty Keypad. If the Keypad seems to be in working condition, measure the DC Voltage on the Control Board between the +24V and COM Terminals to confirm a ~24V reading is obtained – if not, please contact us for support (could be damaged Control Board).

Please note, for an E.Pan error display on a Solar Drive – if this error is being displayed momentarily, this could be due to the DC Bus Voltage dropping below 100V – with Solar Drives this could typically happen when the Dormancy Voltage (Sleep) is set very low, creating a scenario where the drive is still busy decelerating before reaching the Dormancy Voltage (which should normally trigger Alarm Ar.01) while the DC Bus Voltage already dropped below 100V, which would then cause the communication error being displayed on the keypad. This could also be caused by a poor connection within the PV Array supplying the drive with power (sudden voltage drop occurs when a load is added).

If the Operating Panel (Keypad) displays a fault (Error Code) after powering on, please look up the Fault Code from the Fault Codes and Descriptions log (listing possible reasons/causes and solutions) Here.

For additional Fault Information it’s also very helpful to review the Error Log (last 3 errors and related information stored at the time of the fault). To download the Excel Error Log file for printing and noting the info, please download the Excel Error Log File Here (when contacting us for support it might be easier to simply take a video of the error log values by entering through all the parameters and sending us the video).

If all the above is in order, check whether the motor parameters are correct and whether any abnormal parameter settings can be identified – if so, doing a factory reset could be a good idea (for VSDs set A0-09=1 and for Solar Drives (Single-Line Keypad Display models) set FP-01=1).

Start the Drive

Next, start the drive under no-load (no motor connection). If the drive immediately trips when attempting to start it, it could be due to a faulty cooling Fan (or fan short circuit). Firstly, try and set the fans to run during power on (instead of only during running) – on a VSD, set b2-23=1, on a Solar Drive (Single-Line Keypad Display models), set F8-48=1. If the drive then trips immediately after powering it on, this typically indicates a faulty fan. To isolate the faulty fan the fans can be disconnected one at a time (first switch off all power supply and wait 15mins before doing this) to identify the specific fan causing the trip. If identified, please replace the fan, otherwise please contact us for support.

If the drive starts up, test the U, V, W output voltages. If there is a phase loss, phase unbalance, etc., the Drive/Power Board is most likely faulty. In such an event, please contact us for support.

If the output voltage is normal (no phase loss, phase unbalance), a load test can be done (with motor connected – when testing, it is best to test at full load). Check whether the current displayed on the Keypad is too high or has large variations, similarly, also check the output voltage as displayed on the keypad. After this, also test whether the output voltage and current are balanced on the U, V and W output terminals.

If none of the above steps helped identify and/or resolve the issue, please contact us for support.

Contacting us for Support

Please note, when contacting us for support, please try and provide as much information as possible, such as:

  • Photo of the Drive Nameplate.
  • Photo of the Motor Nameplate.
  • Photo’s/Video’s showing the installation and setup.
  • Details regarding the specific application and configuration/setup used.
  • Details regarding the undesired/unexpected behaviour/observations (ideally with photo/video evidence showing the occurrence).
  • Error Log information as obtained from the drive – please download the Excel Error Log File Here (it might be easier to simply take a video of the error log values by entering through all the parameters and sending us the video).

 

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Soft Starters

Understanding Soft Starter Wiring and MCCB/Contactor Selection

Wiring and MCCB/Contactor Selection

Please see the below table for specifications for MCCB/Contactor and Wiring selections for the various GW3 and GS3 Series Soft Starter sizes (please use Copper Cable):

GW and GS Soft Starter Breakers-Contactors-Wiring

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Understanding Soft Starter Sizing (kW Selection)

Soft Starter Sizing/Selection: Please see below guidelines and contact us for verification if necessary:

  • Do not use a Motor with Amp rating less than 20% than that of the Amp rating of the Soft Starter.
  • Select a Soft Starter (kW) of two sizes larger than the Motor (kW) for:
    • Heavy/High Duty (Industrial) Applications (high torque requirement at start-up, e.g., Crusher, Ball Mill, Compressor with 6 Poles or more) requiring 7 or more starts per hour.
  • Select a Soft Starter (kW) size larger than the Motor (kW) for:
    • Heavy/High Duty (Industrial) Applications requiring less than 7 starts per hour.
    • General Duty Motors with 6 Poles or more (if torque is high).
    • Low Duty (low torque requirement at start-up, e.g., Fan, Centrifugal Pump) Motors with 8 Poles or more.
    • Low Duty Applications requiring more than 20 starts per hour.
    • Low Efficiency Motors (e.g., submersible borehole pumps).
    • For use in areas with altitude over 2000m or ambient temperatures above 40 degrees Celsius (preferably use forced cooling, ambient temperature must always be less than 50 degrees). Please Derating Specifications for more info as well as Cooling/Panel Fan Selection specifications.

Please Note:

  • All units have Plastic Covers (top control unit) and a Metal Base (box).
  • Prices for spares available on request only (includes items such as keypad, fans, fan board, thyristors, control board).
  • Please refer to each specific model’s User Manual for important details regarding product Installation, Setup, Safety Information, Precautions and Maintenance
  • Optional RS485 Cards are available on request for GS models and optional custom Control Boards with RS485 communication for GW
  • For installations in enclosures, device keypads can be removed and installed into enclosure doors using additional keypad extension cables.
  • Use the Soft Starter to Start and Stop the Motor, do not disconnect the supply from the Soft Starter to the Motor while it is running. Also do not disconnect the power supply to the Soft Starter while it is running the Motor.
  • Soft Starters are not recommended for applications where the cable length between the Soft Starter and Motor is more than 150m (for very light duty applications it can be considered up to 200m).
  • Please use Copper power cables between the Soft Starter and Motor rather than Aluminium cables (impedance of Aluminium cables are higher).

 

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Understanding Soft Starter Protection Levels

The GW Series Soft Starters offers various protection functions to protect the Soft Starter as well as the Motor.

Please choose the correct Protection Class (Set parameter FA) based on the application conditions and set the Motor Rated Current (Set parameter FP) value according to the motor nameplate rated current (the FP value should not be less than 20% of Soft Starter rated current, otherwise the overheat protection will be insufficient).

Protection Classes (Parameter FA)

The EM-GW series Soft Starter offers five Protection Classes (based on different usage conditions) as follows:

  1. Primary Protection (BASIC Protection)
  2. Light-load Protection (LIGHT LOAD Protection)
  3. Standard Protection (GENERAL LOAD Protection)
  4. Heavy-load Protection (HEAVY DUTY LOAD Protection)
  5. The superior Protection (SUPERIOR Protection)

Please Note:

  • The primary protection class only includes protection functions for overheating, short circuit, phase protection and prohibit the external instantaneous stop terminal (typically for applications/conditions where urgent start-up is required, such as for a fire pump).
  • The protections classes for light loads, standard loads and heavy loads all have the same protection functions. The difference between these relates to the protection level for overload and over current (See diagram 6.1 – protection classes and the time of heat protection).
  • The superior protection class currently performs the same function as the standard load protection class.

Based on this selection the Soft Starter will offer Protection Functions (14 functions) as illustrated in the following 2 tables and graph:

Soft Starter Protection

Please Note:

  • Protection Function 2 (overheat): When the Soft Starter internal temperature reaches 80°C ± 5°C, the Soft Starter over-heat protection will be initiated and will reset again when the Soft Starter internal temperature drops to 55°
  • Protection Function 4 (input phase loss): Delay time is < 3s.
  • Protection Function 5 (Output less-phase protection): Delay time is < 3s (will result in same Error as for Protection Function 4).
  • Protection Function 6 (unbalanced 3-phase): Delay time is < 3 (protection is initiated when the difference of current among the three phrases is more than 50% ± 10%).
  • Protection Function 7 (starting over-current): Protection is initiated if current is 5 times that of the F6 set rated current – see IEC Curve (will result in same Error as for Protection Function 3).
  • Protection Function 8 (running over-load): The Soft Starter will initiate thermal protection based on the set max current of the Soft Starter(F6) – see IEC Curve.
  • Protection Function 9 (low voltage): When the power supply voltage is less than 40%, the protection delay time is < 0.5s, and when the power supply voltage is less than 80%, the protection delay time is < 3s.
  • Protection Function 10 (over-voltage): When the power supply voltage is more than 140%, the protection delay time is < 0.5s and when the power supply voltage is more than 120%, the protection delay time is < 3s.
  • Protection Function 12 (load short-circuit): Delay time is < 0.1s (will result in tripping the power supply / breakers).
  • Protection Function 13 (auto restart / incorrect Wiring): This feature has been demoted.

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Understanding Soft Starter Cooling/Panel Fan Selection

Axial Flow Fan Selection

For Drive (VSD and Solar Drive) Cooling/Panel Fan Selection, please see the relevant FAQ page HERE.

 

The following 3 tables lists all the available axial flow fans and their respective specifications:

220V AC Fans

380V 3-Phase AC Fans

DC Fans

Soft Starters can be used in Online mode (GW Series) or in Bypass mode (GS Series, or using GW Series with Bypass Contactors). In Bypass mode the Thyristors which generate the heat or not used continuously and much less cooling is thus required. Please see tables below showing the appropriate fan/s selection for each specific kW option Soft Starter for Online and Bypass scenarios.

SS Fan Selection - Online

SS Fan Selection - Bypass

Please note that Single-Phase 380V Fans are also available (not included in design options in above tables). Please note that these fans can also be used with a Single-Phase 230V supply, with adjusted CFM and RPM values indicated in brackets below:

380V Single-Phase AC Fans

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Understanding Derating Specifications

Temperature and altitude derating specifications outline the maximum operating temperature and altitude at which a VSD/Soft Starter can function safely and efficiently.

Generally, as the ambient temperature increases, the unit’s output power must be reduced to prevent damage or failure, this reduction is known as “derating”. It is important to consult the manufacturer’s documentation for the specific unit in question to understand its temperature derating factor. Similarly, as altitude increases, the air density decreases which can affect the cooling of the unit, thus it may need to be de-rated, or its output power reduced, to prevent damage or failure.

EMHEATER Environmental requirements state that units should be de-rated based on Ambient Temperature and Altitude. These are specified as follows:

  • Altitude: Lower than 1000m
  • Ambient Temperature: -10°C~ +40°C (de-rated if the ambient temperature is between 40°C and 50°C)

For conditions where the Altitude or Ambient Temperature exceeds the abovementioned specifications, the following applies:

  • Altitude: For every 1000m above the original 1000m limit, please select a kW option larger than normal.
  • Ambient Temperature: For ambient temperature between 40°C and 50°C, please select a kW option larger than normal – This is to accommodate for the rise in resistance under higher temperatures and to protect sensitive electronics from being over-stressed. Using units at Ambient Temperatures above 50 degrees is not advised. For all circumstances with Ambient Temperatures above 40 degrees, please consider making use of forced cooling to reduce the temperature.

As a general (conservative) rule of thumb AC Motors/VSDs/Soft Starters are all rated for up to 1000m (~3300 feet) in altitude and 40 degrees Celsius (and is not rated at all for operation above 50°) and both generally de-rate at the same rate. Both then de-rate at about 1% for every 100m (~328 feet) above 1000m and then de-rate at about 1% per degree above 40 degrees Celsius.

 

Temperature Control: 

Even with de-rating, additional control might be required to maintain temperatures at acceptable levels. This is largely because VSDs/Soft Starters generate significant heat while operating. When the units dissipate heat and the heat is contained within a cabinet, the temperature within can easily exceed upper temperature limits and cause premature drive failure. EMHEATER do provide very specific requirements for installation clearances and mounting methods in order to ensure the units are adequately cooled. When the units are wall- or floor-mounted as stand-alone units these methods may be all that are needed, but installation within cabinets often demands additional temperature control. This temperature control is typically provided by Passive Cooling (fan cooling / forced air ventilation) or Active Cooling (refrigerated / air conditioned and water cooling).

In cases where the ambient temperature is not excessive, Passive Cooling (fan cooling) might be required for unit installation in enclosures. Fans for Passive Cooling should be sized to provide air flow which take into account the unit’s heat dissipation and assume a rated maximum ambient temperature. Fans are also often equipped with suitable filters to protect the cabinet contents from dust and debris (filter kits can typically be specified for indoor or outdoor use). For larger units, particularly when the cabinets are installed outdoors in warm climates, Active Cooling (air condition and water cooling) might be required.

Cooling requirements can be affected by installation location as well. For example, it is not recommended for cabinets to be installed in direct sunlight (if this cannot be avoided, then some type of shelter or sun screen is recommended). Installing a unit in a location shaded from the sun during the hotter parts of the day can significantly reduce cooling demands.

Suggested Cooling as follows:

Active Cooling (air condition and water cooling) Rule of Thumb = 75 BTU/h is required for every 1 HP

Passive Cooling (fan cooling) Rule of Thumb = 4 CFM is required for every 1 HP to maintain 10°C above ambient in the enclosure

 

Humidity/Condensation Control:

EMHEATER units are rated for up to 95% (RH) relative humidity (non-condensing) for VSDs and 90% for Soft Starters, so in all but extreme cases humidity is not a problem. However, cabinets subjected to wide temperature swings can be exposed to condensation. For example, a cabinet mounted outdoors in a temperate climate may see winter temperatures of 0°C or lower. This may not be an issue while the drive is operating, but if it is off for an extended period of time, condensation can develop on internal components. This problem is typically addressed by installing one or more space heaters within the enclosure (heaters are typically thermostatically controlled and interlocked for operation based on unit status).

 

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Soft Starter Voltage and Current Calibrations

Although not common, it is possible for a Soft Starter to show an incorrect Power Supply Voltage and/or Motor Current reading, in which case the reading can be calibrated by setting the following parameters:

For both the GW Series and GS Series Soft Starters:

  • Current Calibration: Change parameter FM to increase or decrease the Soft Starter Current reading to align with the actual current drawn by the motor. If the Soft Starter Current reading is too high, reduce the value of this parameter. If the Soft Starter Current reading is too low, increase the value of this parameter.
  • Voltage Calibration: Change parameter FN to increase or decrease the Soft Starter Voltage reading to align with the actual voltage of the power supply. If the Soft Starter Voltage reading is too high, reduce the value of this parameter. If the Soft Starter Voltage reading is too low, increase the value of this parameter.

* Please Note: The FM and FN parameters are most likely locked for editing, in order to remove the parameter locking, please set parameter FC = 2 first.

*  Note that the GS Series Soft Starter also allows for calibrations using hardware (screw terminals) for making large adjustments – small screws on sides of Terminals (below plastic cover) – on the left-hand side for Current Calibration and on the right hand side for Voltage Calibration (turn Clockwise to reduce readings and Anti-Clockwise to increase readings).

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Soft Starter Dimensions and Panel Spacing Requirements

PLEASE NOTE: Please see Soft Starter Derating Specifications and Soft Starter Sizing/Selection for appropriate power selection, Cooling/Panel Fan Selection to ensure adequate ventilation as well as Soft Starter Wiring and MCCB/Contactor Selection.

Soft Starter Dimensions

Please see the below images listing the dimensions (in mm) for the various Soft Starters according to model and size:

GS3 and GW3 Soft Starter Measurements

Installation Direction and Spacing

In order to protect the service life of Soft Starters and reduce impact on performance, please ensure correct installation direction and spacing as follows:

Soft starter Ventilation and Spacing Requirements

PLEASE NOTE:

  • Install the Soft Starter vertically to dissipate heat upwards. If several Soft Starters are installed in one cabinet, please install them side by side, do not to install above each other.

 

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Soft Starter Bypass Contactor Wiring

The GS Series Soft Starters require bypass contactors, whereas for the GW Series Soft Starters this is optional. Please see wiring as indicated below (Use Bypass Contactor with ~250VAC Coil):

GS Series Bypass Contactor Wiring

*If there is no Neutral Line available, it is possible (but not ideal), to connect Terminal 1 to another Line Phase and use a Bypass Contactor with a ~400V Coil.

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How to Setup On/Off Lights to indicate Soft Starter Running Status

External On /Off lights can be used to indicate a GW Series Soft Starter’s running status by using the Soft Starter Relay Output (Terminals 3 and 4). In order to do that a Power Source can be connected to the Soft Starter Relay (Terminals 3 and 4) with the Indicator Light connected to the circuit. Using the Relay Output parameters the Outputs can be controlled by the Soft Starter Running Status by setting the following parameter:

  • Set FE = 6 (Working State)

* Note that the On/Off state can be ‘switched’/’reversed’ by setting FE = 16 (instead of 6).

 

Contact driving capacity:

  • 250 Vac, 5 A

 

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How to Setup a Soft Starter to Auto Start after Power Failure

To automatically restart a Soft Starter when power returns after a power failure occurred:

  • Connect terminals 7 and 10
  • Connect terminals 8 and 9
  • Connect terminals 9 and 10 with a On/Off Switch in between
  • Set FB = 2

When the switch is On, the Soft Starter will Start and Run the motor. If a power failure occurs, the Soft Starter will automatically start the motor up again once the power supply returns.

* Please Note: If a Start Delay is required, an external delay relay will be required.

 

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How to Setup a Soft Starter for specific Motor Parameters

To setup a Soft Starter for a specific motor:

  • Make sure to set FP (Motor Rated Current) = to the motor rated current.
  • Also adjust F6 (Soft Starter Maximum Current) if this is too high for the applicable motor.
  • In case of an Error 05, please set FA (Protection Level) = 2.
  • After running the motor for the first time, measure the actual Current and Voltage and ensure it aligns with the Current and Voltage as displayed on the Soft Starter screen. If there are variances, please calibrate the readings as explained HERE (calibrations might be affected due to transportation etc. and might therefore require some adjustments).

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How to Reset a Soft Starter (Factory Restore)

For a GW Series Soft Starter:

1.Switch off all electricity supply.

2.Pres the YES key on Soft Starter and hold it in whilst switching on the electricity supply.

3.Keep the YES key pressed for 5 seconds after switching on the electricity supply and then release.

4.After doing the Factory Restore set FA to 1 or 2.

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How to perform Soft Starter Error 4 Troubleshooting

Error 4 Reasons (for a GW Series Soft Starter):

 

  1. Input Power Source Voltage is not Balanced
    • Check the 3-Phase Input Voltages
  2. A possible Settings Problem
    • Can restore factory settings
  3. Thyristors’ main circuit or control circuit problems
    • There are 3 groups of red and white cables
    • One group has 2 red and white cables
    • Test the resistance between each group’s red and white cable (~ 10V but up to 20V fine)
    • Use buzzer position – one probe to R and one to U (S to V and T to W)
  4. Control Board Problems
    • Check that the control board light is blinking
  5. Transformer Voltage
    • Measure the transformer voltage
    • There are 6 small cables
    • Two yellow cables voltage should be about 18v to 20V
    • Two green cable voltage should be about 9V

 

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GW Series Soft Starter Wiring and Control Circuit Explained

Please see the below image regarding the Soft Starter Control Circuit and take note of the following:

  • EMHEATER Soft Starters are NPN Mode (PNP and NPN sensors are both supplied with positive and negative power leads and produce a signal to indicate an “on” state. PNP sensors produce a positive output to industrial controls input, while NPN sensors produce a negative signal during an “on” state).
  • Terminals 7 to 10: Use Dry Contacts (Internal Control Voltage = 12VDC)
  • For installation without any external controls, connect Terminals 7, 8 and 10 (otherwise the Soft Starter cannot start up and will show Err01)

GW Series Soft Starter Control Circuit

Please see the below image regarding the Soft Starter Wiring options (with or without Bypass Contactor):

GW Series Soft Starter Wiring

* Note that when using a bypass contactor together with the GW Series Soft Starter: When in running mode (bypass mode), the Soft Starter do not offer protection to the motor (Overcurrent and Phase Loss) – when using a GS Series (bypass contactor always required), the GS Series Soft Starter still offers protection when in running mode (while in bypass mode).

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GW and GS Series Soft Starter Help Info and Parameter Updates

GW and GS Series Help Info (Error Log and Stats)

When the Soft Starter is powered on and showing a READY STATE on the screen, press the YES button. The screen will then display information as listed below – scroll to the relevant option using the Up and Down arrow buttons on the Keypad:

  • VOLTAGE: Shows the AC Input Power Supply Voltage
  • SPEC: Shows the Amp and Voltage rating of the Soft Starter
  • H1: Shows the latest Error (Error Code and Description)
  • H2 ~ H9: Shows list of previous Errors as per H1 above.
  • VERSION NUMBER: Shows the Control Board Software Version Number
  • NUMBER OF STARTS: Shows the number of times the Soft Starter were running.
  • LAST TIME: Ignore (in future will show the total running time of the previous/last run).

GW Series Help Information

 

GW and GS Series Parameter Modifications

When the Soft Starter is powered on and showing a READY STATE on the screen, press the SET button. The screen will then display a specific parameter and its value. Scroll to the relevant parameter option using the Up and Down arrow buttons on the Keypad and press the SET button key again if the parameter needs to be modified (the colon after the parameter code will flicker when in edit mode). When in edit mode the Up and Down arrow buttons on the Keypad can be used to adjust the parameter to the desired value. When done adjusting the parameter value, press the YES button on the keypad (the Keypad will show GOOD – Program for a moment and then a READY STATE will be shown on the screen).

GW Series Parameter Updates

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EMHEATER Soft Starter Models

TCGC offers the following models Soft Starters:

  • GW Series: Online – Bypass Contactor Optional
    • GW3: 3-Phase (380V ±15%) Input and Output
    • GW4: 3-Phase (480V ±15%) Input and Output
    • GW6: 3-Phase (660V ±15%) Input and Output
  • GS Series: External Bypass Contactor Required – not included
    • GS2: 3-Phase (220V ±15%) Input and Output
    • GS3: 3-Phase (380V ±15%) Input and Output
    • GS4: 3-Phase (480V ±15%) Input and Output
    • GS6: 3-Phase (660V ±15%) Input and Output
  • GB Series: Built-in Bypass Contactor – included
    • GB3: 3-Phase (380V ±15%) Input and Output

*TCGC stocks the GW3 model with the GS3 model available on order only (pricing available). Please enquire regarding pricing on the GW4, GW6, GS2, GS4, GS6 and GB3 models (not available in this document).

 

EMHEATER Soft Starter Models

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Basic Soft Starter Troubleshooting

Soft Starter Inspection and Testing

Improper Soft Starter usage (installation and/or operation) and lack of maintenance (including failure to adjust based on changes in operating conditions) could shorten the service life of a Soft Starter and/or cause Soft Starter failure or faults. The impact of temperature, humidity, dust, and vibration could lead to poor heat dissipation and component aging of Soft Starters (resulting in potential failure or reducing the service life of the Soft Starter). This makes general inspections particularly important (it is recommended that periodic inspections should be conducted at least once a year). Also ensure the correct size Soft Starter is selected for the operation/application – please details HERE.

Before inspecting a Soft Starter, ensure the power supply is cut off (ensure the power indicator of the Soft Starter is off and test the input and output terminals for power).

 GENERAL INSPECTIONS

Take note of the Temperature and Humidity of the surrounding environment. Please see details regarding Soft Starter Derating due to Temperature/Altitude/Humidity HERE. Excessive temperatures could cause the Soft Starter to overheat (typically cause an Error alarm). In severe cases, it could damage the Soft Starter’s power components and even cause a short circuit. Inspect for any possible moisture or dirt/dust evident inside the Soft Starter, especially on the circuitry (which could cause short circuits). Excessive humidity could also cause a short circuit inside the Soft Starter.

Check that all components are clean and for any signs of corrosion. If it’s evident that there is a lot of dust or moist inside the Soft Starter itself, open the Soft Starter and clean it.

Inspect all connections and ensure there aren’t any loose screws, bolts, or plug-in’s, also ensure that none of the conductors or insulators are corroded (if necessary, clean by wiping them off with alcohol). Also check for any signs of arcing on any of the component terminals. Ensure that all wiring and contactors/breakers are according to specification – please details HERE.

Also ensure that Shielded/Screened cable (cable with a common conductive outer layer for electromagnetic shielding) is used when connecting a Soft Starter with any external instrumentation (such as PLC’s, etc.).

When the Soft Starter is running, listen for any abnormal sounds or vibrations from the Soft Starter and Motor. Also check the electric motor for possible issues.

Soft Starters (with IP20 rating) are generally installed in cabinets/enclosures/panels, which should also include adequate ventilation and cooling for the Soft Starter. Please see Soft Starter Cooling/Panel Fan Selection details HERE. Also ensure these fans operate smoothly (ensure there are adequate air flow and listen for any abnormal sounds). Ensure that the fans rotate smoothly, rotates in the correct direction (extraction fans should extract hot air out of the enclosure and not suck air in) and that there are no dust or obstructions in the air inlets. Clean the ventilation ducts and fans if necessary and remove any dust deposits that might be present (also remove dust from filters).

BASIC TROUBLESHOOTING

 Static Tests (Dry Tests)

  • Power Source Voltage: Use a Multimeter to test the Voltage between the different phases of the Power Supply (Not connected to Soft Starter) to ensure the Power Supply is as expected).
  • Thyristor Main Circuit: Use a Multimeter to test Conductance (continuity) between Soft Starter Terminals R + U, S + V and T + W. If conducted (Multimeter Beep Test), the Thyristor is Damaged.
  • Thyristor Control Circuit: Use a Multimeter to test Resistance between Red + Black Wire and between White + Yellow Wire – should be almost the same, if not, Thyristor is damaged (test for all 3 Thyristors).

Soft Starter Dry Tests

Dynamic Tests (Wet Tests)

If the Static Test results are normal, the Dynamic Tests can be performed (power-on tests).

Before Powering On

Check whether the connection ports of the Soft Starter are correctly connected and whether any of the connections are loose (abnormal connections may sometimes cause the Soft Starter to malfunction).

After Powering On

  • Power Supply Voltage: Use Multimeter to test the Voltage between the different phases of each of the Soft Starter Terminals (R, S and T) with the power supply connected (and switched on) to the Soft Starter (to ensure power supply is as expected). Also check the Supply Voltage as displayed on the Soft Starter Operating Panel (Keypad) – when the Soft Starter is powered on and showing a READY STATE on the screen, press the YES button, scroll through the options using the Up and Down arrow buttons on the Keypad until the Voltage is displayed.
  • Control Board Power and Keypad: If the supply voltage is normal and the Keypad does not work (no display), it could be caused by a faulty Cable Socket (on Keypad itself or on Control Board) or damaged Keypad or Cable. Firstly, remove the Keypad and check whether the LED indicator on the Control Board is on after the Soft Starter is powered on. If the LED Indicator does not go on, the Control Board are most likely damaged, please contact us for support. If the LED indicator goes on, it means the Control Board is OK and the problem could be between the Control Board and Keypad connection (cable or sockets). To test (first switch off all power supply), disconnect and connect the cable between the Control Board and Keypad to ensure they are connected properly. If the issue persists (after power on again), replace the Keypad to confirm whether it’s a faulty Keypad and replace the Cable to confirm whether it’s a faulty Cable. If it’s not a Cable or Keypad issue, also test the DC Voltage on the Control Board between the Public (10) Terminal and each of the Start/Stop (7, 8, and 9) Terminals to confirm a ~12V reading is obtained – if not, please contact us for support (could be damaged Control Board).
  • Errors: If the Operating Panel (Keypad) displays a fault (Error Code) after powering on, please look up the Fault Code from the Fault Codes and Descriptionsin the manual (listing possible reasons/causes and solutions). For additional Fault Information it’s also very helpful to review the Error Log (last 9 errors and descriptions of the faults). To view the Error Log, please see the FAQ Entry Here (when contacting us for support it might be easier to simply take a video of the error log by entering through all the parameters and sending us the video).
  • Parameter Settings: Check whether the Motor Rated Current are set correctly (Parameter FP) and whether any other abnormal parameter settings can be identified – if so, doing a factory reset could be a good idea (please see FAQ Entry Here as guideline on how to do a Factory Restore).
  • Phase Voltage (Not Running): With the Power Source On and Soft Starter in STOP mode, use a Multimeter to test the Voltage between the different phases of each of the Soft Starter Terminals R + U, S + V and T + W. Phase to Phase Voltage will measure the same as Input Voltage if No Load is connected, if a load is connected (Not Running), the Voltage will be low (~3V) – measurements due to characteristics of the thyristors.
  • Transformer Voltage: To test this the Keypad and Control Board needs to be removed and the Transformer unplugged – please remove all power before removing all this and make sure it’s safe to switch the power back on to test the transformer (this test should be done by skilled technicians only). The Transformer has 6 small cables: two Yellow, two Blue and two Green Measure the Voltage between each pair. Yellow should be ~ 18-20Vac, Blue and Green should be ~ 9Vac.

Soft Starter Wet Tests

Start the Soft Starter (Running Load Test)

Next, start the Soft Starter with a load connected (when testing, it is best to test at full load). If the motor starts up and is running, check whether the Current displayed on the Keypad is accurate (as expected), similarly, also check the Output Voltage as displayed on the Keypad. After this, also test whether the Output Voltage and Current are balanced on the U, V and W output terminals and corresponds with the readings as displayed on the Keypad. If there is a phase loss, phase unbalance, or large variance between Keypad display values and actual measured values, please contact us for support.

If none of the above steps helped identify and/or resolve the issue, please contact us for support.

Contacting us for Support

Please note, when contacting us for support, please try and provide as much information as possible, such as:

  • Photo of the Soft Starter Nameplate.
  • Photo of the Motor Nameplate.
  • Photo’s/Video’s showing the installation and setup.
  • Details regarding the specific application and configuration/setup used.
  • Details regarding the undesired/unexpected behaviour/observations (ideally with photo/video evidence showing the occurrence).
  • Error Log information as obtained from the Soft Starter – please see the FAQ Entry showing how to access the Error Log Here (it might be easier to simply take a video of the error log values by entering through all the parameters and sending us the video).

 

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General

How do Collection/Delivery Work

EMHEATER stock is stored in Pretoria, but we deliver nationwide via courier service and also export to other southern African countries. It is also possible to make arrangements to collect items in Pretoria.

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